Alan M. Jacobs, 1969. "Pleistocene Niche Glaciers and Proto-Cirques, Cataract Creek Valley, Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana", United States Contributions to Quaternary Research; Papers Prepared on the Occasion of the VIII Congress of the International Association for Quaternary Research Paris, France, 1969, Stanley A. Schumm, William C. Bradley
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In the valley of Cataract Creek in the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana, two moraines were deposited by Pleistocene niche or slab glaciers that emanated from poorly developed cirques (proto-cirques) along the sides of the valley at elevations of less than 8000 feet (2438 m) rather than by valley glaciers that emanated from well-formed cirques at elevations of 9000 feet (2743 m). The niche or slab glaciers seem analogous to those occurring in presently glacierized proto-cirques in Spitsbergen, Norway, and Scotland. Proto-cirques were formed in hollows at elevations of less than 8000 feet (2438 m) in this valley because the hollows...