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Ophiolite complexes represent fragments of ocean crust and mantle formed at spreading centers and emplaced on land. The setting of their origin, whether at mid-ocean ridges, back-arc basins, or forearc basins has been debated. Geochemical classification of many ophiolite extrusive rocks reflect an approach interpreting their tectonic environment as the same as rocks with similar compositions formed in various modern oceanic settings. This approach has pointed to the formation of many ophiolitic extrusive rocks in a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) environment. Paradoxically, structural and stratigraphic evidence suggests that many apparent SSZ-produced ophiolite complexes are more consistent with mid-ocean ridge settings....

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