Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution VI
CONTAINS OPEN ACCESS
This volume represents the proceedings of the homonymous international conference on all aspects of impact cratering and planetary science, which was held in October 2019 in Brasília, Brazil. The volume contains a sizable suite of contributions dealing with regional impact records (Australia, Sweden), impact craters and impactites, early Archean impacts and geophysical characteristics of impact structures, shock metamorphic investigations, post-impact hydrothermalism, and structural geology and morphometry of impact structures—on Earth and Mars. Many contributions report results from state-of-the-art investigations, for example, several that are based on electron backscatter diffraction studies, and deal with new potential chronometers and shock barometers (e.g., apatite). Established impact cratering workers and newcomers to the field will appreciate this multifaceted, multidisciplinary collection of impact cratering studies.
The first microseconds of a hypervelocity impact
Published:August 02, 2021
Marie Arnika Gärtner, Matthias Ebert*, Martin Schimmerohn, Stefan Hergarten, Frank Schäfer, Thomas Kenkmann, Max Gulde, 2021. "The first microseconds of a hypervelocity impact", Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution VI, Wolf Uwe Reimold, Christian Koeberl
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The earliest ejection process of impact cratering involves very high pressures and temperatures and causes near-surface material to be ejected faster than the initial impact velocity. On Earth, such material may be found hundreds to even thousands of kilometers away from the source crater as tektites. The mechanism yielding such great distances is not yet fully understood. Hypervelocity impact experiments give insights into this process, particularly as the technology necessary to record such rapid events in high temporal and spatial resolution has recently become available. To analyze the earliest stage of this hypervelocity process, two series of experiments were conducted with a two-stage light-gas gun, one using aluminum and the other using quartzite as target material. The vertical impacts of this study were recorded with a high-speed video camera at a temporal resolution of tens of nanoseconds for the first three microseconds after the projectile’s contact with the target. The images show a self-luminous, ellipsoidal vapor cloud expanding uprange. In order to obtain angle-resolved velocities of the expanding cloud, its entire front and the structure of the cloud were systematically investigated. The ejected material showed higher velocities at high angles to the target surface than at small angles, providing a possible explanation for the immense extent of the strewn fields.