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In a well-defined subrecess in the Appalachian thrust belt in northwestern Georgia, two distinct fold trains intersect at ~50° in the down-plunge depression of the Floyd synclinorium. A mushwad (ductile duplex) of tectonically thickened weak-layer rocks (primarily the shale-dominated Cambrian Conasauga Formation) filled the space beneath folds and faults of the overlying Cambrian–Ordovician regional stiff layer (mushwad roof). Measurements of the mushwad thickness from balanced cross sections provide the basis for three-dimensional (3-D) models. Tectonically thickened weak-layer shales in a model using a simple line-length balance of the stiff layer have a volume of ~64% of the volume in...

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