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The Keanakāko‘i Tephra was deposited from 1500 to ca. 1820 CE, when Kīlauea’s magmatic output was ~2% of the average output during historical times (post–1823 CE). The tephra consists of deposits from numerous phreatomagmatic and phreatic eruptions, three episodes of high lava fountains, and one lava. Fresh glass is available from most tephra units. Major elements and trace elements were determined for glass from 49 tephra units and three pretephra lavas. Olivine crystals from 11 high-MgO tephra glasses were also analyzed. These results were compared to compositions from Kīlauea’s historical period to evaluate ~500 yr of Kīlauea geochemical evolution....

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