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To promote a wider use of S and Z buckle folds in field-based structural studies, we first formulate three conditions under which quasi-cylindrical segments of gentle to close S and Z folds indicate the sense of finite-shear components. Based on our results of shear-sense mapping, we then assess the validity of published geological hypotheses in well-exposed parts of the western Grenville Province and the Southern Appalachians. Near the Central metasedimentary belt boundary of southeastern Ontario, which is widely interpreted as a 1090–1050 Ma ductile thrust, most orogen-normal, southeasterly plunging, gentle to close folds in the main foliation prove to have...

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