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Orphans are exotic, internally complex, detached duplexes within windows of far-traveled thrust sheets. They were amalgamated to the base of the overriding sheet as allochthonous structures. Internal stratigraphy differs significantly from both super- and subjacent rocks of the enveloping thrust, thus indicating that they originated from a distal ramp location where the stratigraphy was intermediate between that of super- and subjacent rocks. They characteristically occur in windows elongated perpendicular to direction of thrust transport. These complex, antiformal stack types of duplexes include a bounding window-roof fault within the overriding thrust sheet that is antiformal and commonly overturned forelandward, whereas the...

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