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This outline of the topographic evolution of Africa tied to the history of the African Surface illustrates how a unique geomorphic history over the past 180 million years reflects the continent's distinctive tectonics. The African Surface is a composite surface of continental extent that developed as a result of erosion following two episodes of the initiation of ocean floor accretion around Afro-Arabia ca. 180 Ma and 125 Ma, respectively. The distinctive tectonic history of the African continent since 180 Ma has been dominated by (1) roughly concentric accretion of ocean floor following those two episodes; (2) slow movement of the...

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