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The interest of the Danish scientist Niels Stensen (1638–1686) in geology begins with his manuscript Chaos of 1659. It shows how he is influenced by Pierre Borel (ca. 1620–1689), René Descartes (1596–1650), Athanasius Kircher (1601–1680), Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655), and others. His main contribution to geology is his pioneering work from 1669 De Solido intra Solidum Naturaliter Contento Dissertationis Prodromus. The Deluge described by Holy Scripture plays an important role in Stensen’s theory and his reconstruction of Earth history. Stensen had become a Catholic in 1667. However, his acceptance of what scripture says about the Deluge is sincere. He had no means of checking time scales nor would deviation from Holy Scripture be dangerous for him, since a Jesuit, Martino Martini (1614–1661), in 1658 had published a history of China that did not fit well with the time scale in Holy Scripture. The present paper mentions other scientists’ sincere adherence to diluvial theories, like Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz (1646–1716), whereas Carl von Linné (Linnaeus, 1707–1778) was more reserved. After 1840, diluvianism was finally dropped because of Agassiz’ (1807–1873) discovery of glaciations.

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