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Oxygen and carbon isotopic ratios of planktonic and benthonic foraminifera have provided information about the evolution of the oceans at low- and mid-latitude sites in the Miocene eastern North Pacific Ocean.

DSDP Site 495 (12° N; 91° W) provides a record of early and middle Miocene oceanographic conditions in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Oxygen isotopic evidence indicates that G. sacculifer, D. altispira and G. siakensis were shallow-dwelling, tropical planktonic species. G. venezuelana deposited its test at greater depths, probably below the thermocline. Carbon isotopic evidence conflicts with that of the oxygen isotopes in that it suggests that G. siakensis calcified...

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