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Series: Special Publications of the Society of Economic Geologists
Published: 01 January 2014
DOI: 10.5382/SP.18.11
EISBN: 9781629499291
... data d (i.e., eq 1) is discretized as where θ is the zenith angle, φ is the azimuth angle, Ω is a solid angle cone, dl is a length element, and ρ(ι,θ,φ) is the subsurface density model. The integrated mass density, d, is converted into muon flux using the depth-intensity relationship in Figure 1...
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Journal Article
Journal: Geophysics
Published: 01 September 1979
Geophysics (1979) 44 (9): 1549-1569.
...L. Malmqvist; G. Joensson; K. Kristiansson; L. Jacobsson Abstract The feasibility of in-situ rock density determinations by means of subsurface cosmic-ray muon intensity measurements is based on theoretical calculations for two hypothetical scintillation counter telescopes: one is intended...
Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 01 February 2014
Geology (2014) 42 (2): 167-170.
... and, for granitic rocks, to basin slope, but not to mean annual precipitation. We estimated longer-term (>10 5 yr time scale) erosion rates for the granitic core of the Front Range by measuring the concentration of 10 Be and 26 Al produced mainly by muon interactions at depths 1.7–10 m below the surface...
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Journal Article
Journal: GSA Bulletin
Published: 01 March 2012
GSA Bulletin (2012) 124 (3-4): 626-640.
... histories, insufficient shielding, postburial production of cosmogenic isotopes by muons, and unknown initial 26 Al/ 10 Be ratios. Nevertheless, and in spite of the large range of burial ages and large uncertainties, we identify samples that provide reasonable burial age constraints on the depositional...
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Series: GSA Special Papers
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.1130/2006.2415(07)
... to catchment-averaged processes, as well as modeling the role of muons in variable erosion rate scenarios. In situ–produced cosmogenic radionuclides (CRNs) are used extensively to infer erosion rates acting upon a wide variety of landforms. Original application of this methodology focused on recently...
Journal Article
Journal: GSA Bulletin
Published: 01 December 2002
GSA Bulletin (2002) 114 (12): 1581-1591.
... of ice cover were less near the terminus. These data, together with simple modeling of nuclide production by deeply penetrating muons, suggest that many meters of rock must be removed to reduce inheritance to negligible levels (<1000 yr) in continental terrains with low long-term erosion rates. Our...
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Journal Article
Journal: GSA Bulletin
Published: 01 July 2002
GSA Bulletin (2002) 114 (7): 787-803.
... atoms·g −1 ·yr −1 ). Seven shielded samples, in which the nuclide inventory is muon-generated, also have nuclide activities consistent with similarly low rates of erosion but over even longer time scales. It appears that the Eyre Peninsula inselbergs have been and are eroding so slowly that they may well...
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Image
Figure 1. Relative production rates of  10 Be and  26 Al with depth in rock...
Published: 01 December 2002
Figure 1. Relative production rates of 10 Be and 26 Al with depth in rock (ρ = 2.7 g·cm −3 ). Heavy solid line is total production. Thin solid line is spallation production (Λ = 160 g·cm −2 ). Light gray line is muon-induced production (Λ = 1300 g·cm −2 ) modeled with muons producing 3
Image
Figure 3. Depth profile on terrace level T2 to demonstrate negligible cosmo...
in > Geology
Published: 01 July 2006
Figure 3. Depth profile on terrace level T2 to demonstrate negligible cosmogenic nuclide inheritance. Cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) concentration is given relative to the mean of the two surface sample concentrations (BB2 and BB3), and we included muon production in the theoretical depth-profile
Image
Depth profiles of  10 Be,  14 C, and  26 Al production in quartz by spallat...
Published: 01 January 2002
Figure 1. Depth profiles of 10 Be, 14 C, and 26 Al production in quartz by spallation reactions, capture of stopped negative muons, and fast muon interactions, respectively. The data are based on both experimental determinations and model calculations ( Heisinger and Nolte 2000 ); data
Image
Photo from 1956 taken at the Yakutsk Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences...
Published: 01 October 2007
Figure 2. Photo from 1956 taken at the Yakutsk Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Radio technicians S. N. Druzhinin and V. P. Razin undertake the calibration of muon counters in a shaft at a depth of 60 m. The extensive underground research complex at Yakutsk provided data for many
Image
Figure 7. Apparent inheritance (in  10 Be years) resulting from instantaneo...
Published: 01 December 2002
slope reflects change from predominately neutron to predominately muon production at a depth of ∼3 m. Calculations were made for lat 43.5°N and 250 m above sea level by using a neutron-attenuation factor of 165 g·cm −2 , the equations of Granger and Smith (2000) , and the surface production-rate
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Apparent inheritance ( 10 Be years) resulting from instantaneous removal (g...
Published: 01 January 2002
from predominately neutron to predominately muon production at a depth of about 3 m. Calculations made for 10 Be assuming parameterization of Granger and Smith (2000) . Model is strictly correct only for first glaciation following steady state erosion without ice cover.
Journal Article
Journal: Elements
Published: 01 October 2014
Elements (2014) 10 (5): 347-350.
... elevations, which are undercounted by neutron monitors ( Clem and Dorman 2000 ), needs to be considered for nuclide production. Fast muons give rise to Bremstrahlung (“braking radiation”), which produces gamma ray photons. This phenomenon occurs when charged particles slow down due to interactions...
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Journal Article
Journal: GSA Bulletin
Published: 14 May 2018
GSA Bulletin (2018) 130 (11-12): 1903-1917.
... Be and 26 Al, respectively, which we characterize as: where (0) and (0) are the local surface production rate of 10 Be due to neutron spallation and negative muon capture, respectively, ρ is the bulk density of colluvial fill, Λ spall and Λ muon are the mass attenuation lengths...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 April 1999
Journal of the Geological Society (1999) 156 (2): 209-212.
... Review of Earth and Planetary Science 1994 22 273 317 Charalambus S. Nuclear transmutations by negative stopped muons and the activity induced by cosmic-ray muons Nuclear Physics 1971 A166 145 161 Cox K.G. Macdougall J. The Karoo Province Continental Flood Basalts...
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Potential exposure/exhumation histories for samples plotting to the left of...
Published: 02 January 2018
Figure 14. Potential exposure/exhumation histories for samples plotting to the left of the steady-state erosion island on the two-nuclide diagram ( 26 Al/ 10 Be ratios normalized to sea-level high-latitude). Nuclide production includes spallation and muons ( Granger and Smith, 2000 ). Ellipses
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21 Ne/ 10 Be versus  10 Be concentration for three Laingsburg quartz sample...
Published: 01 June 2015
, such as muon contributions, depth dependence of production rates and the standard atmosphere model.
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A:  26 Al- 10 Be exposure-burial plot of samples from the coastal plain of ...
in > Geology
Published: 01 April 2012
by the modern and late Pleistocene samples, these ages reduce to 2.6–0.6 Ma. B: Effects of postburial production at different burial depths and 1 m.y. time steps are shown, using muon productions from Braucher et al. (2011) . The effects of postburial production are not significant in burial depths >25 m
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26 Al/ 10 Be ratios plotted versus  10 Be concentrations [conc., at/g (quar...
in > Geology
Published: 01 May 2011
shielding (black solid lines). B–F: Plots calculated for continuous irradiation by deeply penetrating muons during burial ( Balco et al., 2005 ), with burial iso-age curves calculated for 0.25–10 m.y. (colored lines). In contrast to case of complete shielding (A), here 10 Be concentrations mostly increase