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melt weakening

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Series: Geological Society, London, Special Publications
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.1144/GSL.SP.2001.186.01.18
EISBN: 9781862394346
... of the questions posed in the introduction. Continental fault zones in partially melted continental crust assume three roles: (1) they are agents of weakening and hardening at different levels of the crust; (2) they are conduits for the rapid movement of veined melts from melt-source regions at or below...
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Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 01 July 1986
Geology (1986) 14 (7): 558-561.
...Lincoln S. Hollister; Maria Luisa Crawford Abstract Convergent tectonics between continental crustal blocks result in deep burial and anatexis of supracrustal rocks. Anatectic and/or mantle-derived melts combine to form a melt-weakened zone in the thickened lower crust. The accumulation of melt...
Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 04 January 2019
Geology (2019) 47 (2): 107-110.
... faults is, thus, a key mechanical property that controls the collapse. However, the dynamic friction on the ring faults during caldera collapse remains unknown. Here, we show that dynamic weakening of ring faults caused by frictional melting can play a critical role in the catastrophic collapse...
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Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 01 August 2016
Geology (2016) 44 (8): 607-610.
... facilitate earthquake propagation. While the early stages of slip are marked by dramatic weakening by flash amorphization or melting, coupled with devolatilization near the slip surface, the later stages (for slip larger than a few centimeters) are likely to be affected by bulk dehydration ( Hirose...
FIGURES
Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 01 August 2008
Geology (2008) 36 (8): 619-622.
... local accumulations of melt. This is underlain by an upper mantle with an anomalously low resistivity that can be accounted for by an asthenosphere containing a few percent partial melt. The presence of fluids may weaken the crust and mantle sufficiently to permit lateral flow, and may also allow...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 October 2005
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2005) 95 (5): 1666-1673.
... have thus studied systematically the effects of frictional melting on the slip-weakening behavior of faults ( Hirose et al. , 2000 ; Hirose, 2002 ). Such frictional melting processes are discussed fully in Hirose and Shimamoto ( 2005 ), but a few insights will be given below into the processes...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 August 2005
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2005) 95 (4): 1224-1233.
...Hiroyuki Noda; Toshihiko Shimamoto Abstract A controversy over the last decade is the large difference in the slip-weakening distance, D c , between laboratory-measured and seismically estimated values. Our numerical analyses of the thermal pressurization process, based on measured transport...
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Series: Geological Society, London, Special Publications
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.1144/GSL.SP.2001.186.01.06
EISBN: 9781862394346
.... Following initial strain-hardening and frictional melting during anhydrous cataclastic breakdown of the mylonite fabric, reaction weakening began with formation of Mg-chlorite at sub-greenschist conditions (<320 0 C) and continued at lo wer temperatures (<120°C) by growth of swelling clays...
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Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 01 December 2016
Geology (2016) 44 (12): 1063-1064.
... thermal pressurization, like melting, is an effective dynamic weakening mechanism, it may differ fundamentally from melting in terms of how it affects long-term fault strength. If correct, this raises the question of the role of the myriad other thermally driven dynamic weakening mechanisms ( Di Toro et...
Journal Article
Journal: Elements
Published: 01 August 2011
Elements (2011) 7 (4): 253-260.
...Rebecca A. Jamieson; Martyn J. Unsworth; Nigel B. W. Harris; Claudio L. Rosenberg; Karel Schulmann Abstract As the continental crust thickens during mountain building, it can become hot enough to start melting, leading to a profound reduction in its strength. Melt-weakened crust can flow outward...
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Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 01 January 2016
Geology (2016) 44 (1): 79-80.
... that contacts spend in the thermally weakened versus unweakened state. Their work yields a critical weakening velocity of ∼2 m/s and a flash weakening temperature of ∼300 °C. Important questions remain about how these data apply to tectonic faults. For example, why is evidence of shear melting in fault...
Journal Article
Published: 01 December 2009
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2009) 99 (6): 3470-3474.
... the frictional strength of the fault, which is consistent with our results of the water injection experiment for gabbro. Recently, friction experiments at high slip rates have revealed dynamic weakening of faults caused by frictional melting ( Tsutsumi and Shimamoto, 1997 ; Hirose and Shimamoto, 2005...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 October 1995
Journal of the Geological Society (1995) 152 (5): 743-746.
.... Melt origin of pseudotachylites demonstrated by textures Geology 1983 11 105 108 Piper J.D.A. Post-Laxfordian magnetic imprint in the Lewisian metamorphic complex and strike-slip motion in the Minches, NW Scotland Journal of the Geological Society, London 1992 149 127 137...
Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 01 April 2011
Geology (2011) 39 (4): 347-350.
.... The deformation both predates and postdates the magma-rich breakup. The hyperextended basins are often underlain by high-velocity lower crustal bodies, which we argue represent partially serpentinized upper mantle. Long-lived lithospheric weakening and proneness to deformation is proposed to relate to crustal...
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Journal Article
Journal: GSA Bulletin
Published: 01 November 2015
GSA Bulletin (2015) 127 (11-12): 1689-1710.
... not further considered. Three temperatures were routinely measured in two-phase inclusions: homogenization to the liquid phase ( T h ), indicative of the minimum trapping temperature of the inclusion; first melting temperature ( T fm ), associated with the fluid composition; and final ice melting ( T m ice...
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Series: Geological Society, London, Special Publications
Published: 01 January 2011
DOI: 10.1144/SP357.13
EISBN: 9781862396050
.... Afar plume) with a mafic crustal component. The isotopic compositions of north Shewa basalts and rhyolites indicate the increasing involvement of crustal materials in the evolution of north Shewa magmas with time, probably as a consequence of thermal weakening of the crust triggered by repeated...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 August 2003
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2003) 93 (4): 1835-1840.
... generation process. Recently, Hirose and Shimamoto ( 2002 ) proposed from laboratory experiments that the melting due to frictional heating causes a long critical slip-weakening distance during high-speed faulting. The present method might enable us to confirm the hypothesis of longer D c due...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 May 2015
Journal of the Geological Society (2015) 172 (3): 283-286.
...Rocco Novellino; Giacomo Prosser; Richard Spiess; Cecilia Viti; Fabrizio Agosta; Enrico Tavarnelli; Francesco Bucci Abstract Slip along low-angle normal faults is a mechanical paradox requiring activation of strain weakening mechanisms. Microstructures present in the slip zones of incipient low...
FIGURES
Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 01 July 2013
Geology (2013) 41 (7): 739-742.
...Xiaofeng Chen; Andrew S. Madden; Barry R. Bickmore; Ze’ev Reches Abstract Slip during large earthquakes occurs along faults that are hundreds of kilometers long, yet the dynamic weakening that drives these earthquakes is controlled by nano- to micro-scale frictional processes. We analyzed...
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Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 01 January 2016
Geology (2016) 44 (1): 63-66.
... on theoretical analyses and high-velocity friction experiments, a variety of coseismic weakening mechanisms have been proposed. Weakening mechanisms controlled by temperature rise include melt lubrication, thermal and/or thermochemical pressurization, and flash heating ( Di Toro et al., 2011 ; Niemeijer et al...
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