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escalation hypothesis

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Journal Article
Journal: PALAIOS
Published: 01 April 2003
PALAIOS (2003) 18 (2): 83–86.
... paleontological hypotheses of the last 25 years, is Geerat Vermeij's (1987) hypothesis of escalation, which states that the history of life has been characterized by two simultaneous long-term directional trends within similar environments: increasing biological hazards (predation and competition...
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Journal Article
Journal: Paleobiology
Published: 01 January 2015
Paleobiology (2015) 41 (1): 89–107.
..., following the predictions of escalation, that through the early Mississippian, camerate crinoids evolved more effective anti-predatory strategies in response. We test this hypothesis of escalation by examining the changes in spinosity and plate convexity among camerate crinoids throughout this interval...
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Journal Article
Journal: Paleobiology
Published: 21 June 2017
Paleobiology (2017) 43 (4): 569–586.
... parsed by region and environment. The escalation hypothesis posits that taxonomic groups that could adapt to intense predation and bioturbation proliferated, whereas groups unable to adapt were reduced in diversity and abundance or driven to extinction. We tested this hypothesis in five regions during...
Journal Article
Journal: PALAIOS
Published: 01 October 1996
PALAIOS (1996) 11 (5): 437–445.
Journal Article
Journal: PALAIOS
Published: 01 August 1993
PALAIOS (1993) 8 (4): 358–375.
Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 01 December 1999
Geology (1999) 27 (12): 1139–1142.
...Thor A. Hansen; Patricia H. Kelley; Vicky D. Melland; Scott E. Graham Abstract We test the hypothesis that escalated species (e.g., those with antipredatory adaptations such as heavy armor) are more vulnerable to extinctions caused by changes in climate. If this hypothesis is valid, recovery faunas...
Journal Article
Journal: Paleobiology
Published: 01 January 2000
Paleobiology (2000) 26 (2): 215–237.
... the hypothesis of escalation. The Exogyrinae show disproportionately higher average repair frequency (0.41) relative to the ecologically and functionally similar unornamented pycnodonts (0.19). An increase in repair frequency (independent evidence of the action of a selective agent, e.g., predation) through...
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Journal Article
Journal: Paleobiology
Published: 01 January 2003
Paleobiology (2003) 29 (1): 71–83.
...David R. Bellwood Abstract One of the central goals in paleoecology is to understand the nature and consequences of biotic interactions. In marine systems, it has been argued that one of the major steps in the escalation of biotic interactions was marked by the origins of grazing fishes...
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Journal Article
Journal: PALAIOS
Published: 01 August 2001
PALAIOS (2001) 16 (4): 354–371.
... tests of escalation involving Tertiary congeners from the Atlantic Coastal Plain. 16 01 2001 Society for Sedimentary Geology 2001 Repaired shell-breakage in extant and extinct ( Robba and Ostinelli, 1975 ; Vermeij, 1983 ; Vermeij and Dudley, 1985 ; Vermeij, 1987 ; Checa, 1993...
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Journal Article
Journal: PALAIOS
Published: 01 June 2000
PALAIOS (2000) 15 (3): 184–193.
...LINDSEY R. LEIGHTON Abstract Brachiopod spines have been interpreted as a mechanism that enables the organism to rest on soft substrates by distributing shell mass over a greater area. This hypothesis is based on an arrangement in which spines are long, strongly curved, few in number, and generally...
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Journal Article
Journal: PALAIOS
Published: 01 August 2006
PALAIOS (2006) 21 (4): 369–375.
... intensities in the early Pleistocene. Because a prediction of the hypothesis of escalation is that changes in predators' behavior developed through time, these changes in drilling location may be the results of escalation. In contrast with the stereotypic trend of borehole sites, correlation coefficients...
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Journal Article
Journal: PALAIOS
Published: 01 December 2001
PALAIOS (2001) 16 (6): 566–579.
... ). The interest in drilling predation stems not only from the opportunity to study individual interactions in the fossil record but also from the chance to document predator-prey interactions in an evolutionary context. In particular, the hypothesis of escalation proposed by Vermeij (1987) can be tested...
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Journal Article
Journal: Paleobiology
Published: 01 January 2012
Paleobiology (2012) 38 (1): 40–51.
... highstand systems tracts. Temporal trends in infestation frequency cannot be explained as an ecological/evolutionary phenomenon (e.g., the hypothesis of escalation); instead the trend seems controlled by environmental variation induced by glacio-eustatic sea-level changes and inadequate sampling. Because...
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Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 01 February 2001
Geology (2001) 29 (2): 111–114.
... examined the latitudinal distribution of shell ornamentation in Tournaisian, Visean, and Namurian articulate brachiopods to test the hypothesis that the latitudinal gradient in antipredatory ornamentation was present in the Carboniferous. We found a statistically significant latitudinal ornamentation...
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Journal Article
Journal: Paleobiology
Published: 01 December 2006
Paleobiology (2006) 32 (4): 533–561.
... in the older fossil record or (b) a shift in sampling procedures between predominantly lithified rocks of the Mesozoic and predominately unlithified, and therefore sievable, sediments of the late Cenozoic. The second hypothesis is genuine biological changes —macroevolutionary trends in the structure of marine...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 July 2019
Journal of Paleontology (2019) 93 (4): 658–672.
... the most detailed record of Ordovician mollusk shell microstructures, as well as exceptional details on the earliest cases of undisputed nacre. The trend towards nacre in the Mollusca is one aspect of the surge in escalation between mollusks and their predators during the Great Ordovician...
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Journal Article
Published: 26 July 2019
Journal of the Geological Society (2019) 176 (6): 1023–1037.
.... The Lagerstätte evidences the escalation of numbers of new body plans and life modes that formed the basis for a modern, functionally tiered ecosystem. The fauna is dominated by predators, infaunal, benthic and pelagic, and the presence of abundant nekton, including large sweep-net feeders, suggests an ecosystem...
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Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 19 October 2017
Geology (2017) 45 (12): 1131–1134.
...), and temperature ( T ) and pressure ( P ) conditions of the source hydrothermal system. This association between RSAM and geochemical data suggests that the current escalation in fumarolic tremor is driven by increased gas transport and venting from a hydrothermal system that evolves toward higher T - P conditions...
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Journal Article
Journal: Paleobiology
Published: 01 May 2016
Paleobiology (2016) 42 (2): 185–208.
...Philip M. Novack-Gottshall Abstract Evolutionary paleoecologists have proposed many explanations for Phanerozoic trends in ecospace utilization, including escalation, seafood through time, filling of an empty ecospace, and tiering, among others. These hypotheses can be generalized into four models...
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Journal Article
Journal: PALAIOS
Published: 01 November 2009
PALAIOS (2009) 24 (11): 772–779.
... , L. Tapanila , eds., Current Developments in Bioerosion , Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg . 451 – 470 . Kelley , P. H. , and Hansen , T. A. , 1993 , Evolution of the naticid gastropod-prey system: An evaluation of the hypothesis of escalation : PALAIOS , 8 . 358 – 375...
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