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case hardening

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Journal Article
Journal: Elements
Published: 01 June 2017
Elements (2017) 13 (3): 165-169.
...Ronald I. Dorn; William C. Mahaney; David H. Krinsley Case hardening is the process by which the outer shell of an exposed rock surface hardens due to near-surface diagenesis. Rock coatings and weathering rinds are distinct phenomena: rock coatings accrete on surfaces; weathering rinds derive from...
FIGURES | View All (9)
Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 01 October 1982
Geology (1982) 10 (10): 520-523.
...James L. Conca; George R. Rossman Abstract The case-hardened crust developed on the Aztec Sandstone in the Valley of Fire, Nevada, has been characterized by a variety of techniques, including electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The case-hardened crust consists mainly of host rock...
Journal Article
Published: 01 March 1971
Journal of Sedimentary Research (1971) 41 (1): 274-281.
...Laurence H. Lattman; Elliott M. Simonberg Abstract Case-hardening of vertical faces of alluvium and colluvium in, and flanking, the Spring Mountains, Nevada, begins within one or two years after exposure and may proceed to the extent that samples break through clasts. The alluvium and colluvium...
Journal Article
Journal: GSA Bulletin
Published: 01 August 1962
GSA Bulletin (1962) 73 (8): 1023-1024.
...A. B ARNOLD Abstract During the investigation of the Iron Canyon Dam Site on the Sacramento River near Red Bluff, California, tests were made to determine strength properties of the foundation materials. Tests performed on the agglomerate show the effect of case hardening and a decrease in strength...
Image
Backscatter electron image of Mn–Fe–Si <b>case</b> <b>hardening</b> biotite. Sample is fr...
in > Elements
Published: 01 June 2017
Backscatter electron image of Mn–Fe–Si case hardening biotite. Sample is from Tibet. Scale bar = 10 μm
Image
Examples of extraterrestrial <b>case</b> <b>hardening</b>. ( A ) Image of the surface of ...
in > Elements
Published: 01 June 2017
Figure 8 Examples of extraterrestrial case hardening. ( A ) Image of the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (view is ~900 m across). While dust appears to generate smooth surfaces, unknown agents have created induration features, as evidenced by eroded edges of the crust (arrowed). Image
Image
( Left ) A <b>case</b>-<b>hardened</b> surface of sandstone (identified by the black arro...
in > Elements
Published: 01 June 2017
Figure 1 ( Left ) A case-hardened surface of sandstone (identified by the black arrow) at Gooseberry Mesa, Utah (USA). ( Right ) Back scattered electron image of two hardening agents that indurate the sandstone surface: (1) an outer coating of rock varnish; (2) Mn–Fe, mobilized from the varnish
Image
( A ) Petroglyphs in Whoopup Canyon, Wyoming (USA) are <b>case</b> <b>hardened</b> by a m...
in > Elements
Published: 01 June 2017
Figure 4 ( A ) Petroglyphs in Whoopup Canyon, Wyoming (USA) are case hardened by a mix of different materials that includes silica glaze, rock varnish, and iron films. Underneath this case-hardened surface, dissolution of the rind continues until the petroglyph experiences detachment. ( B
Journal Article
Published: 01 September 2000
Journal of Sedimentary Research (2000) 70 (5): 1118-1128.
... are proposed: (1) simultaneous cement dissolution and case hardening involving formation of groundwater ferricretes simultaneously with weathering of ferrous sulfides and carbonates; dissolved iron generated during degradation of these phases diffused to the joint faces for groundwater ferricrete formation...
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Series: Geological Society, London, Special Publications
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.1144/GSL.SP.2001.186.01.18
EISBN: 9781862394346
.... Episodic weakening then hardening of melt-bearing fault zones in the continental crust has broad implications for other, fault-related orogenic processes. For example, melts may be at least partly responsible for triggering rapid, in some cases even repeated, exhumation of basement rock (‘tectonic surges...
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Series: Geological Society, London, Special Publications
Published: 01 January 2016
DOI: 10.1144/SP416.1
EISBN: 9781862397187
... Abstract This work highlights the importance of applying suitable methods for the design of air-hardening lime mortars with the correct water dosage and binder-to-aggregate ratios. To this end, the recently developed ‘wet packing method’ has been used to assess the optimum water-to-binder ratio...
FIGURES
Journal Article
Journal: GSA Bulletin
Published: 01 November 2004
GSA Bulletin (2004) 116 (11-12): 1443-1464.
... simultaneously during the evolution of this fault system, in which case the net behavior of the system reflects the outcome of a competition between softening mechanisms, such as reduction in bend angle by vertical-axis rotation (e.g., Cowgill et al., 2004 ), and hardening processes, such as growth...
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Series: Geological Society, London, Special Publications
Published: 01 January 2007
DOI: 10.1144/GSL.SP.2007.270.01.03
EISBN: 9781862395183
... core? Phillips (1972) offered the plausible explanation that the rapid dilation-induced drop in pore fluid pressure in each brecciated volume causes its dilatancy hardening ( Frank 1965 ; Brace 1968 ), favouring fracture propagation into adjacent volumes that transiently retain their pre-fracture...
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Series: Geological Society Special Publication
Published: 01 January 2011
DOI: 10.1144/SP354.12
EISBN: 9781862396029
... rind and low hyphal penetration. Our observations indicate that: (a) iron oxy-hydroxides, particularly concentrated where hyphal patches and bundles contact biotite, consist of hematite; (b) the microcosms of lichen hyphae and their precipitates fill voids to form case hardening on outer surfaces...
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Series: Geological Society, London, Special Publications
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.1144/GSL.SP.2002.205.01.26
EISBN: 9781862394537
... laminar black crusts and white case hardened crusts and weakening the host rock. Atmospheric pollution has long been recognized as one of the main causes of accelerated deterioration of limestones ( Kieslinger 1949 ; Winkler 1966 ; Amoroso & Fassina 1983 ; Camuffo et al. 1983 ). The reaction...
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Series: SEPM Special Publication
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.2110/pec.01.71.0017
EISBN: 9781565761933
... and cementation. Physical compaction is aided by a paucity of early cementation in carbonate eolianites. Factors limiting cementation include arid climate, short residence time of vadose waters, case hardening, and the dominantly calcite grain mineralogy of many pre-Quaternary examples. Significant chemical...
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Journal Article
Journal: GSA Bulletin
Published: 01 December 1984
GSA Bulletin (1984) 95 (12): 1398-1412.
... to case-hardened rinds than to true duricrust. Crusting, a possibly continuing process, may be the product of atmospheric breathing of the regolith. Pits on surfaces of many martian stones are probably vesicles modified by eolian erosion. Pits on nonvesicular rocks may be solely the product of wind...
Journal Article
Journal: GSA Bulletin
Published: 01 October 1983
GSA Bulletin (1983) 94 (10): 1148-1158.
.... Fluvial and eolian processes operate on different time scales and at different locations, governed by blanket thickness, debris caliber, and the formation of case-hardened crusts. Stripping of an entire mantle is probably not possible; however, materials trapped within depressions form the only clearly...
Journal Article
Journal: GSA Bulletin
Published: 01 September 1973
GSA Bulletin (1973) 84 (9): 3013-3028.
... layers. Nonpedogenic deposits include some laminar layers, gully-bed cementation, and case hardening. The extent and development of cementation are greatest on fans composed of carbonate and basic igneous rock detritus, less on fans built of siliceous sedimentary detritus, and least on fans composed...
Journal Article
Published: 01 April 1930
American Mineralogist (1930) 15 (4): 165-166.
... in dolomitic limestone. The roof of the caves consists of a case-hardened crust formed by superficial silicification and ferruginization of the limestone; and it is this impervious crust that has enabled the nitrates, probably of animal origin, to be preserved. Mention is made of some other occurrences...