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ballistic projectiles

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Series: GSA Special Papers
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.1130/2006.2402(09)
... Volcanic explosions expel fragments following ballistic trajectories. The volcanic ballistic projectiles represent a hazard due to their high velocities and temperatures. They may affect people, ecology, infrastructure, and aircraft. In order to avoid volcanic ballistic projectile-related...
Series: GSA Special Papers
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.1130/2013.2498(12)
... the recognition of up to 25 different eruptions. Lava flows, ash-fall, and ballistic projectile deposits produced by Strombolian or violent-Strombolian eruptions are the most recurrent events preserved in the stratigraphic record of Boquerón Volcano. Pyroclastic-flow, and especially pyroclastic-surge, deposits...
Series: GSA Special Papers
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.1130/0-8137-2384-1.367
... of volatile Au halides may have caused the fractionation. Ballistically dispersed metallic spherules are enriched in Co, Ni, Ir, and Au compared to Canyon Diablo metal. Element/Ni ratios deviate slightly from projectile ratios, and are inversely correlated with susceptibility to oxidation relative to Ni. We...
Series: GSA Special Papers
Published: 01 January 1982
DOI: 10.1130/SPE190-p39
... certain that drag forces in a rapidly ascending cloud of vaporized target and projectile materials must be invoked. In contrast, individual components of the Bunte Breccia are ejected in direct ballistic trajectories and at sufficient velocities to generate a secondary cratering action upon landing, which...
Series: GSA Special Papers
Published: 01 January 1982
DOI: 10.1130/SPE190-p153
... Laboratory experiments of impacts in an atmosphere provide important clues for processes accompanying large-body impacts on the Earth. Impacts of 0.635 cm aluminum projectiles at 6 km/s into fine pumice dust at one atmosphere generate a ball of ionized gas behind an expanding curtain of upward...
Journal Article
Journal: Elements
Published: 01 February 2012
Elements (2012) 8 (1): 19-24.
... since the beginning, focusing on the nature of impact-generated rocks and of the extraterrestrial projectiles as well as their interaction with geological materials. Chemical and isotopic techniques have allowed the dating of impact events and the identification of traces of meteoritic projectiles...
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Journal Article
Journal: GSA Bulletin
Published: 15 April 2019
GSA Bulletin (2019) 131 (9-10): 1537-1554.
..., although each had a distinct eruption mechanism. Southeastward tephra dispersal counter to NE trade winds implies dispersal by jet-stream winds. The dispersal of lithic clasts in Episode 1 cannot be explained by ballistic trajectories or by transport in a buoyant plume. Calculations instead indicate...
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Journal Article
Journal: The Leading Edge
Published: 01 February 2008
The Leading Edge (2008) 27 (2): 159-161.
... in effect puts together the figures of Apollonius, Galileo, and Kepler ( Figure 4 ). First, Newton uses Galileo, as stated in Book 1 of the Principia : Galileo discovered that the descent of bodies varied as the square of time, and that the motion of projectiles was in the curve of a parabola...
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Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 01 September 2011
Geology (2011) 39 (9): 891-894.
... and application of a model to Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico) ballistic projectiles : Geophysical Research Letters , v. 33 , L11302 , doi:10.1029/2006GL026195 . Andronico D. Scollo S. Caruso S. Cristaldi A. , 2008 , The 2002–03 Etna explosive activity: Tephra dispersal and features...
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Journal Article
Journal: GSA Bulletin
Published: 01 January 2000
GSA Bulletin (2000) 112 (1): 75-85.
... of bark have been removed and sandy debris is wedged beneath the edges of intact bark. On fallen trunks the debarking process apparently occurred after the trees fell, and may have been initiated by ballistic projectiles of rock fragments that splintered patches of bark and were later sheared off...
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Journal Article
Journal: Elements
Published: 01 February 2012
Elements (2012) 8 (1): 55-60.
... (projectile diameter >1 km), the expanding impact plume carries material well beyond the Earth's atmosphere. Deposits of these materials are known as “plume deposits” and have been found around the world at the K–Pg boundary ( Smit 1999 ). The reentry of a large amount of ejecta into the upper atmosphere...
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Series: Geological Society, London, Special Publications
Published: 01 January 2012
DOI: 10.1144/SP361.13
EISBN: 9781862396098
... and lahars, floods Dynamic physical loads, water impoundments and floods, suspended particulates in water Yes Yes Opening of new vents Dynamic physical loads, ground deformation, volcanic earthquakes Yes No Ballistic projectiles Projectile impacts, static physical loads, abrasive particles...
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Series: European Mineralogical Union Notes in Mineralogy
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.1180/EMU-notes.15.8
EISBN: 9780903056564
..., as discussed above (and, for example, in detail in Grieve et al., 1996 ) the orientations change as shock pressure increases and this can be used to determine a narrower pressure range for an individual quartz grain. In equation 6 it can be seen that a = 0 if the projectile and target materials...
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Series: Geological Society, London, Special Publications
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.1144/SP446.11
EISBN: 978-1-78620-376-2
... Purrumbete, southeastern Australia ( Jordan et al. 2013 ). We propose that eruption UI occurred at coeval vents generating weak strombolian activity, although the northern vent had a phreatomagmatic component that dispersed base surges and ballistic projectiles that formed impact sags ( Fig. 6a, b...
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Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 01 December 2003
Geology (2003) 31 (12): 1061-1064.
..., and examined in reflected light under oil by using a Nikon Microphot microscope. The proposals of Hildebrand (1993) and Shuvalov and Artemieva (2002) suggest prompt ignition of vegetation, either by ballistic reentry of ejecta or the entering impactor itself, indicating that charcoal could be found...
FIGURES
Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 01 February 2002
Geology (2002) 30 (2): 99-102.
... , E. , and Melosh , H.J. , 2000 , Hydrocode modeling of oblique impacts: The fate of the projectile : Meteoritics and Planetary Science , v. 35 p. 117 – 130 . Pierazzo , E. , Kring , D.A. , and Melosh , H.J. , 1998 , Hydrocode simulation of the Chicxulub impact event...
FIGURES
Journal Article
Published: 31 May 2016
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2016) 106 (4): 1438-1445.
..., with ballistic projectiles up to 50 cm long, and a tephra accumulation over an area greater than 1000  km 2 ( Rose et al. , 2013 ). It resulted in significant morphological changes in the MacKenney cone: a new fissure‐like structure formed on the north‐northwest flank, and a new vent formed on the south...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 January 2006
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry (2006) 60 (1): 519-596.
... is in the “gravity regime of cratering” and the crater is termed a “gravity crater.” Equation (5.4) is valid for so-called “gravity craters.” Figure 5.13 illustrates the general character of the impact-crater scaling by showing the dependence of the rim-crest crater-diameter ratio to the projectile diameter, D / D...
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Journal Article
Journal: GSA Bulletin
Published: 01 January 2010
GSA Bulletin (2010) 122 (1-2): 109-126.
... at Barringer Crater is locally observed around a third of the crater rim ( Shoemaker, 1963 ), compared to 10%—15% at Lonar. The observed ejecta thickness profile significantly departs from the expected ballistic power law around small craters. In Figure 10 , the −3 power law (dashed line) has the same...
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Journal Article
Journal: GSA Bulletin
Published: 01 September 2007
GSA Bulletin (2007) 119 (9-10): 1151-1167.
... in the Lower Suevite suggests ballistic emplacement during the passage of the ejecta curtain ( Hörz, 1965 ; Oberbeck, 1975 ). Melosh (1991) estimated a maximum velocity for the ejecta curtain ( v c ) of at most 0.1 the impactor velocity ( v i ). A commonly used value v i for the Chicxulub projectile...
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