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Vaal Basin

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Journal Article
Journal: Economic Geology
Published: 01 August 1999
Economic Geology (1999) 94 (5): 741–747.
...R. I. Spaggiari; J. D. Ward; M. C. J. de Wit Abstract The Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary Droogeveldt gravels, one of the more famous alluvial diamond diggings in the Vaal basin of South Africa for both grade and large stone size, were totally exploited in the earlier part of this century...
Journal Article
Published: 01 March 2008
South African Journal of Geology (2008) 111 (1): 53–66.
..., in the downstream end of a palaeo-loop of the Vaal River as a splay deposit where the channel abruptly widens as it exits this narrow loop. The gravel accumulation has been described as the 12 m to 16 m terrace package linked to the Younger Gravels of the Vaal Basin and correlated with the Pleistocene Rietputs...
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Journal Article
Journal: Economic Geology
Published: 01 February 1976
Economic Geology (1976) 71 (1): 157–176.
... placer. Results show that the Vaal Reef placer was a shoreline feature of the Upper Witwatersrand Basin and that its deposition was controlled, firstly, by the major structure of the basin and, secondly, by a minor transverse synclinal structure that induced an entry point. The sediments in the footwall...
Journal Article
Journal: Geophysics
Published: 01 January 2000
Geophysics (2000) 65 (6): 1862–1870.
... Central Rand Group within the main Witwatersrand Basin (Figure 1 ). Building on the success of these 2-D surveys, AAC's first 3-D seismic survey for mine planning and development took place at Western Deep Levels gold mine in 1993, with the second following one year later at Vaal Reefs No. 10 shaft...
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Journal Article
Journal: GSA Bulletin
Published: 01 November 2010
GSA Bulletin (2010) 122 (11-12): 1968–1980.
... sediments created by the erosion of a large continental impact basin, the 2.02 Ga Vredefort Dome, located in South Africa. The Vaal River originates ∼300 km upstream from the exposed rocks of the Vredefort Dome, and it is actively eroding the impact structure. Quartz is ubiquitous in siliciclastic sediments...
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Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 02 February 2018
Geology (2018) 46 (4): 295–298.
...—Johannesburg dome. Figure 2. Backscattered-electron image of rounded uraninite grain from Vaal Reef, Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa. Large, fractured, uraninite grain in center is largely unaltered, while smaller uraninite grains above and below it have been partially altered to brannerite, which...
FIGURES
Journal Article
Published: 01 December 2000
South African Journal of Geology (2000) 103 (3-4): 237–248.
... of the Vaal River basin are Proterozoic/Archaean volcano-sedimentary successions (2800−1800 Ma), composed of six groups that collectively comprise a 12,400m thick succession of sediments ( e.g. shale of the Archaean Witwatersrand System and dolomite of the Transvaal Sequence) and a 5,260m thick succession...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 December 2004
South African Journal of Geology (2004) 107 (4): 477–488.
... in the north to the main Karoo basin in the south-west ( Stratten 1968 , Visser and Loock 1978 , Helgren 1979 ). This and the presence of roche moutonnées on the Ventersdorp bedrock, illustrate that the pre-Karoo topography was far from planar. An east-west orientated section across the Harts and Vaal...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 April 2017
American Mineralogist (2017) 102 (4): 813–823.
... for constraining the location of a source crater. In South Africa, detrital shocked minerals from the 2020 Ma Vredefort impact structure have been documented in the Vaal River basin, downriver from the structure. Here, we report results of an extensive microstructural survey of detrital zircon from the Orange...
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Image
Backscattered-electron image of rounded uraninite grain from <b>Vaal</b> Reef, Wit...
in > Geology
Published: 02 February 2018
Figure 2. Backscattered-electron image of rounded uraninite grain from Vaal Reef, Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa. Large, fractured, uraninite grain in center is largely unaltered, while smaller uraninite grains above and below it have been partially altered to brannerite, which also partially
Series: Geological Society, London, Special Publications, Geological Society, London, Special Publications
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.1144/GSL.SP.2005.248.01.12
EISBN: 9781862394964
... contemporaneous and most were satisfied in the Orange-Vaal Rivers-Kaapvaal system and mega-placers were consequently generated. Other sedimentary basins currently developing on or near to cratons in Africa include the Niger, Congo, Taoudenni and possibly Chad ( Burke 1996 ). The extent to which these basins...
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Series: GSA Special Papers
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.1130/2006.2405(19)
... The Late Archean Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa represents the world's foremost gold deposit. The basin is also the erosional remnant of the world's oldest (2.02 Ga) and largest known impact structure, the Vredefort impact structure. The debate about the origin of the Witwatersrand gold...
Journal Article
Published: 01 March 2019
South African Journal of Geology (2019) 122 (1): 1–16.
...), and the Vereeniging top seam in the New Vaal Colliery, northern Karoo Basin. The upper coal zone (UCZ) palynoflora of the SFB correlates closely with the Gwembe Formation (mid-Zambezi Basin, Zambia), Biozone E of the Waterberg Coalfield (Ellisras Basin), and Biozone KK 3 (Kalahari Karoo Basin, Botswana). A new radio...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 September 2009
South African Journal of Geology (2009) 112 (2): 89–108.
... in the Early Tertiary. Mahura Muthla remained part of the Kalahari River basin which fed the Molopo River and the lower Orange drainage network and by the Early Tertiary the latter had captured the Vaal and the upper and middle Orange River drainage basin which had been part of the Karoo River drainage...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 December 1999
South African Journal of Geology (1999) 102 (4): 363–376.
... the Orange-Vaal River system and the Limpopo and Molopo-Nossib-Auob drainage basins is designated the Etosha-Griqualand-Transvaal (EGT) axis. Upper Cretaceous flexuring along this axis disrupted old drainage lines, and initiated deposition of the Kalahari formation. The end-Cretaceous Ovamboland-Kalahari...
Series: Geological Society, London, Special Publications
Published: 01 January 2018
DOI: 10.1144/SP469.17
EISBN: 9781786203885
... the Campanian and Maastrichtian. Around this island, erosion products can be found in the Chalk intervals. These sediments are time and facies comparable to the Vaals Formation in the south of The Netherlands, adjacent to the inverted Roer Valley Graben. Maastrichtian sediments are seen to onlap onto the island...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 June 2013
South African Journal of Geology (2013) 116 (1): 1–54.
... with these plumes created two major river systems: the Okavango-Zambezi-Limpopo system and the Vaal-Orange system. The climate at the time of breakup was hot and humid and the interior experienced extensive erosion, so much so that by the Oligocene (ca. 30 Ma), the sub-continent had been planed to base level...
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Journal Article
Journal: Economic Geology
Published: 01 August 1999
Economic Geology (1999) 94 (5): 721–740.
..., had its source in the present upper Orange/Vaal drainage basin and its outlet was at the present Olifants River mouth. The second and more northerly system, also known as the Kalahari River, drained southern Botswana and Namibia and entered the Atlantic Ocean via the lower Orange River. Erosion...
Journal Article
Published: 01 September 2018
South African Journal of Geology (2018) 121 (3): 327–335.
... . Geological Context of the Vaal River Faunas . South African Journal of Science , 73 , 303 – 307 . Helgren , D.M. , 1979 . River of diamonds: an alluvial history of the lower Vaal Basin , South Africa, Research Paper, Department of Geography , University of Chicago , United States of America...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 April 1998
Journal of the Geological Society (1998) 155 (2): 311–322.
... cratons are characterized by a divergent megacycle (Hamersley Range and Vaal Megasequences) followed by a convergent megacycle (Chichester Range and Drakensberg Megasequences). Our data show that the megasequence boundary is marked by drowning of both cratons at approximately the same time ( c. 2590 Ma...