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Sapanca Lake

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Journal Article
Published: 01 February 2002
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2002) 92 (1): 43–60.
... of five segments separated by releasing step-overs; herein named the Hersek, Karamürsel-Gölcük, İzmit-Sapanca Lake, Sapanca-Akyazi, and Karadere segments from west to east, respectively. The Hersek segment, which cuts the tip of a large delta plain in the western end of the rupture zone, has...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 June 2003
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2003) 93 (3): 1249–1266.
... modeled seismic-wave propagation around the fault system using a finite difference method. We focused on the effect of different fault geometries on the rupture process and seismic-wave propagation. Numerical simulation results imply a rapid and continuous rupture propagation from the İzmit–Sapanca Lake...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 February 2002
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2002) 92 (1): 267–277.
... the Sapanca Lake and stopped around Akyazi, whereas the western portion stopped near Hersek. This step lasted for 22-23 sec, releasing a total moment of 1.43 × 10 20 N m. The dislocation was concentrated briefly at two areas: one near Gölcuk and the other between the Sapanca Lake and Akyazi. Slip...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 February 2002
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2002) 92 (1): 300–311.
... the relative appropriateness of inversion results in terms of the Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion. The best source model is characterized by an asperity that is about 35 km east of the epicenter and near a segment boundary at Sapanca Lake, triggered by the first time-window front with 5.8 km/sec, close...
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Series: Geological Society, London, Special Publications
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.1144/GSL.SP.2006.260.01.27
EISBN: 9781862395084
... the Aşāgı Yuvacik, Kular Yaylacik and Acisu sites between Izmit and Sapanca Lake. The same fault segment seems to have been activated and produced surface ruptures including during the earthquakes of AD 1509, AD 989 and AD 554, plus two prehistoric events. The palaeoseismological results provide clear...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 February 2002
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2002) 92 (1): 256–266.
.... We find that the rupture propagated at the sub-Rayleigh speed of about 3 km/sec on the western and eastern segments of the fault, but that the central segment (İzmit-Sapanca Lake-Sakarya), nearly 50 km long, broke at the supershear speed of about 4.8 km/sec. This value, within the range...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 February 2002
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2002) 92 (1): 361–375.
... m is observed in Gölcük and east of Sapanca Lake. The rupture is extremely linear, but its complexity increases toward the western end, including the bifurcation. The stress field associated with the aftershocks is compared with the one obtained in 1995, showing the invariance of the smallest...
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Image
The slip velocities at the Earth's surface resulting from a simulated earth...
Published: 01 February 2002
Figure 4. The slip velocities at the Earth's surface resulting from a simulated earthquake that nucleates at 9-km depth along the Sapanca segment and then spontaneously propagates. In this example the step-over width at Sapanca Lake is assumed to be 1 km wide. At 4 sec after nucleation
Image
(a) Offset canal; (b) collapsed apartments and surface rupture; (c) offset ...
Published: 01 February 2002
Figure 11. (a) Offset canal; (b) collapsed apartments and surface rupture; (c) offset railway; (d) slip distribution and rupture geometry of the İzmit-Sapanca Lake segment. Numbers with arrow on the fault show dextral offsets. Dotted areas are swamps.
Image
Location of the array stations (triangles) with respect to the İzmit (soli...
Published: 01 February 2002
Figure 1. Location of the array stations (triangles) with respect to the İzmit (solid line) and Düzce (dotted line) fault breaks. The epicenters of the İzmit and Düzce earthquakes are indicated by a star. Also shown by a smaller star is the epicenter of the Sapanca Lake earthquake
Image
The Marmara Sea region. YB, Yenisehir Basin; GS, Gulf of Saros; GI, Gulf of...
Published: 01 February 2002
Figure 1. The Marmara Sea region. YB, Yenisehir Basin; GS, Gulf of Saros; GI, Gulf of İzmit; GG, Gulf of Gemlik; GE, Gulf of Edremit; IL, Iznik Lake; SL, Sapanca Lake; NAF, North Anatolian Fault. Solid stars from west to east indicate epicenter of the 17 August 1999 İzmit, the 12 November 1999
Image
(a) <b>Lake</b> <b>Sapanca</b> step-over basin and portions of the <b>Sapanca</b> and Sakarya fa...
Published: 01 February 2002
Figure 4. (a) Lake Sapanca step-over basin and portions of the Sapanca and Sakarya fault segments. (Modified from Lettis et al., 2000 .) (b) Map from Figure 4a continued.
Image
Epicenter location distribution of the İzmit earthquake aftershocks from 1...
Published: 01 February 2002
of the İzmit mainshock is shown by a star. PA, Princes Islands Activity; YC, Yalova Cluster; TC, Tuzla Cluster; HD, Hersek Delta; GK, Gölcük; SL, Sapanca Lake; AB, Adapazari Basin. Depth cross section is taken parallel to the strike running from west to east. Magnitude scale is the same as in Figure 5 .
Image
Shear-strain rates along the cross sections in  Figure 4a . Vertical and ho...
Published: 01 February 2002
boundary zone; SR, slip rate along the northern branch of the NAF. (a) AA′, Gulf of Saros; (b) BB′, Ganos fault; (c) CC′, Marmara Sea; (d) DD′, Gulf of İzmit; (e) EE′, near İzmit; (f) FF′, Sapanca Lake; (g) GG′, Düzce Fault; (h) HH′, Bolu-Gerede area.
Image
(a) Shear strain rates ( ϵ  12 ) in nstrain/yr (1.0 × 10 9  rad/yr) obtaine...
Published: 01 February 2002
, and vertical axis is shear-strain rate in nstrain/yr. GS, Gulf of Saros; GF, Ganos Fault; MS, Marmara Sea; GI, Gulf of İzmit; I, İzmit; SL, Sapanca Lake; DF, Düzce Fault; BGI, Bolu-Gerede-Ismetpasa area.
Journal Article
Published: 01 February 2002
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2002) 92 (1): 245–255.
...Figure 4. The slip velocities at the Earth's surface resulting from a simulated earthquake that nucleates at 9-km depth along the Sapanca segment and then spontaneously propagates. In this example the step-over width at Sapanca Lake is assumed to be 1 km wide. At 4 sec after nucleation...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 February 2002
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2002) 92 (1): 406–410.
...Figure 1. Location of the array stations (triangles) with respect to the İzmit (solid line) and Düzce (dotted line) fault breaks. The epicenters of the İzmit and Düzce earthquakes are indicated by a star. Also shown by a smaller star is the epicenter of the Sapanca Lake earthquake...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 February 2002
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2002) 92 (1): 19–42.
...Figure 4. (a) Lake Sapanca step-over basin and portions of the Sapanca and Sakarya fault segments. (Modified from Lettis et al., 2000 .) (b) Map from Figure 4a continued. ...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 February 2002
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2002) 92 (1): 107–125.
... fault segment (SFS) extends from the Sapanca releasing step-over in the west to near the town of Akyazi in the east. The SFS emerges from Lake Sapanca as two distinct fault traces that rejoin to traverse the Adapazari Plain to Akyazi. Offsets were measured across 88 cultural and natural features...
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Image
Simplified rupture map for the 17 August 1999, İzmit earthquake surface ru...
Published: 01 February 2002
and east of Yalova. Lake Sapanca (S) lies over the step-over between the İzmit-Sapanca and Sakarya fault segments. The epicenter for the 12 November 1999, Düzce earthquake is also shown. Modified from USGS ( 2000 ). Base map courtesy of BKS Surveys Ltd., Northern Ireland.