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Cope's rule

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Journal Article
Published: 01 September 2003
Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France (2003) 174 (5): 449-452.
...Jean Guex Abstract For numerous shelly invertebrates, Cope’s rule is shown in this paper to merely describe the particular case where volume increase is strictly coupled with diameter or length. Allometries, which are frequently observed in the evolution of the shells’ geometry, mean...
Journal Article
Published: 01 March 1995
Journal of Paleontology (1995) 69 (2): 203-210.
Journal Article
Published: 01 November 1966
Journal of Paleontology (1966) 40 (6): 1397-1399.
...David Nicol Abstract The phyletic trend toward increase in size of invertebrates (Cope's Rule) is invoked to account for the sudden appearance of shelly forms in the Cambrian. Earlier forms may have been too small and poorly organized to secrete shells. GeoRef, Copyright 2004, American Geological...
Journal Article
Journal: Paleobiology
Published: 01 November 2008
Paleobiology (2008) 34 (4): 553-562.
... proportions that are significantly different from unbiased, with several clades previously cited as examples of “Cope's Rule” showing biased increases in size, and basal mustelids (badgers, and allied genera), Mephitidae (skunks), and Vulpini (“foxes”) exhibiting biased decreases. The caniform pattern...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 October 2005
Micropaleontology (2005) 51 (4): 309-318.
... of Cope’s rule . The amplitude of change of the average size through time appears to have remained small, which may result from competition by other, larger, contemporaneous calcareous nannoplanktonic groups. The parallel histories of average size and diversity among Mesozoic coccolithophorids, both...
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Journal Article
Journal: Paleobiology
Published: 01 January 2002
Paleobiology (2002) 28 (4): 423-434.
... which ammonites recovered from the crisis at the Triassic/Jurassic (T/J) boundary. Our analysis reveals that (1) a size continuum (normal distribution from “dwarfs” to “giants”) exists for all Early Jurassic ammonites; (2) although there are no sustained trends (e.g., no Cope's rule), the succession...
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Journal Article
Published: 01 March 1998
Journal of Paleontology (1998) 72 (2): 371-387.
... species, and the other of the biggest ones; 4) There is a trend toward decreasing body size through time in stenonoid horses. This trend, that follows the inverse direction of Cope's rule, can be related to the climatic-environmental changes that occurred from the middle Villafranchian to the early...
Journal Article
Journal: Paleobiology
Published: 05 September 2013
Paleobiology (2013) 39 (4): 648-661.
... primarily centered on body-mass trends within groups, and in particular on Cope's Rule, the hypothesis that taxa within lineages tend to increase in size with time (e.g., Alroy 1998 ; Gould and MacFadden 2004 ; Van Valkenburgh et al. 2004 ). One of the first paleontological studies to specifically...
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Journal Article
Journal: Paleobiology
Published: 01 March 2006
Paleobiology (2006) 32 (2): 173-178.
... this the majority-rule hypothesis, because it is in the source populations in which the majority of individuals likely to contribute to the future gene pool of species resides. We would argue that the geographic history of the human species offers yet another example. Genetic, phenotypic, and cultural evidence...
Journal Article
Journal: Paleobiology
Published: 01 January 2001
Paleobiology (2001) 27 (2): 254-261.
... in the number of consistent trees. Majority-rule consensus favors the subset with the largest number of trees consistent with the placement of the rogue taxon. This bias favors clusters not because of the biological implications of the tree, but on the basis of great inequality in the sizes of the islands...
FIGURES
Series: Geological Society, London, Special Publications
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.1144/GSL.SP.2000.177.01.05
EISBN: 9781862394254
... the mid Ordovician. Since then important faunas have been described from the early and mid-Ordovician (e.g. Pojeta & Gilbert-Tomlinson 1977 ; Babin 1982 a ; Babin & Gutiérrez-Marco 1991 ; Cope 1996 , 1999 ), which have extended the known ranges of many bivalve groups and yielded...
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Journal Article
Journal: Paleobiology
Published: 03 May 2016
Paleobiology (2016) 42 (4): 643-658.
... ecosystems. We have applied such an analysis to Bergmann’s rule, which posits a causal relationship between temperature and body size in mammals. Bergmann’s rule predicts that latitudinal gradients should exist during any interval of time, with larger taxa toward the poles and smaller taxa toward the equator...
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Journal Article
Journal: Geology
Published: 22 March 2019
Geology (2019) 47 (5): 479-482.
... and requires microbial communities to cope with extremely limited sources of energy. Because of this scarcity, metabolic processes come at a high energetic cost, but the ways heterotrophic microbial communities develop to minimize energy expenses for a maximized yield remain unclear. Here, we report molecular...
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Journal Article
Journal: Geophysics
Published: 12 February 2019
Geophysics (2019) 84 (2): V133-V142.
... obtained by the ASSA and SSA methods, in which the SVD applies to all of the traces at once, proves that the ASSA method is a valid way to cope with spatially varying dips. In addition, a comparison of the ASSA method with the windowed SSA method indicates gains in efficiency and accuracy. Synthetic...
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Series: Geological Society, London, Memoirs
Published: 01 January 2004
DOI: 10.1144/GSL.MEM.2004.029.01.28
EISBN: 9781862394049
... features of the overburden are often more significant than those at reservoir level, since over 90% of the well is typically spent drilling the overburden, coping with a wider variety of challenges than those associated with the reservoir itself. 3D seismic data defines overburden tectonostratigraphy...
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Series: Geological Society, London, Special Publications
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.1144/SP442.36
EISBN: 9781786202925
... of the nature of science (NOS), which students need in order to develop an authentic understanding of the scientific process. Four controversial vignettes in the history of geology are overviewed: Agassiz’s Glacial Theory, Darwin’s theory on reef formation, the Cope–Marsh dinosaur wars and Byrd’s flight over...
Journal Article
Published: 01 May 2018
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2018) 108 (3A): 1272-1286.
... of the medium at short wavelengths. To cope with these limitations, the proposed approach makes use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), trained on a set of strong‐motion records, to predict the response spectral ordinates at short periods. The essence of the procedure is, first, to use the trained ANN...
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Journal Article
Journal: AAPG Bulletin
Published: 01 May 1966
AAPG Bulletin (1966) 50 (5): 826-829.
..., more disseminated, and altogether more baffling hunting ground with which to cope. Countless exploratory problems which are basically geological, to be solved by geologists, pervade the present scene and are destined to multiply as time passes. Leadership by geologists throughout the exploratory...
Journal Article
Journal: Paleobiology
Published: 01 November 2008
Paleobiology (2008) 34 (4): 516-533.
... of new dinosaur names was Othniel Marsh, who named 80 species, closely followed by Friedrich von Huene (71) and Edward Cope (64), but the “success rate” (proportion of dinosaurs named that are still regarded as valid) was low (0.14–0.29) for these earlier authors, and it appears to improve through time...
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Journal Article
Journal: Geophysics
Published: 29 May 2015
Geophysics (2015) 80 (4): V57-V66.
... by the proposed method. In addition, we found that the proposed algorithm can be modified to simultaneously cope with deblending and data recovery. A real survey acquired in the Gulf of Mexico was used to mimic a simultaneous-source acquisition with missing shot locations. The algorithm was able to recover...
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