Previous palynological studies of the Caspian–Black Sea–Mediterranean corridor primarily focused on pollen and spores for paleoecological and chronostratigraphic studies. Until recently, there has been less emphasis on the nonpollen palynomorphs, such as dinoflagellate cysts, algal and fungal spores, and animal remains. New studies of nonpollen palynomorphs in land-locked seas, estuaries, and lakes reported here indicate that they are important markers of salinity, nutrient loading, and human activity, including ballast discharge, farming, and soil erosion. We describe the nonoxidative laboratory processing methods necessary to extract nonpollen palynomorphs from marine- and brackish-water sediment samples. We list 48 nonpollen palynomorphs taxa from 37 surface sediments (including the past millennium) for cores along the salinity gradient from <16‰ off the Danube Delta to >39‰ in the Aegean, Mediterranean, and Red Seas, for two Crimean saline lakes, the Caspian and Aral Seas, and for lakes in Iran and Kazakhstan. The main nonpollen palynomorphs taxa are illustrated and listed systematically to provide a baseline for future collaborative studies among Black Sea corridor palynologists. We outline the biological affinities of some nonpollen palynomorphs and discuss the initial results of the study in terms of what nonpollen palynomorphs may reveal about the history of the salinity in the Black Sea corridor and the impact of humans on soil erosion, plankton production, and harmful algal blooms.