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Testing turbidite conceptual models with the Kaikoura earthquake co-seismic event bed, Aotearoa New Zealand

Katherine L. Maier, Lorna J. Strachan, Stephanie Tickle, Alan R. Orpin, Scott D. Nodder and Jamie Howarth
Testing turbidite conceptual models with the Kaikoura earthquake co-seismic event bed, Aotearoa New Zealand
Journal of Sedimentary Research (February 2024) PRE-ISSUE PUBLICATION

Abstract

The 2016 M (sub w) 7.8 Kaikoura Earthquake in Aotearoa New Zealand provides an opportunity to test widely applied turbidite sedimentation models because it triggered a co-seismic turbidity current. The resultant Kaikoura event bed (KEB), interpreted as a turbidite, is sampled for approx. 1300-km down-flow along the depositional system. Sediment core lithologies, computed tomography (CT), and particle-size data are used to test event-bed thickness, silt content, facies distribution and stacking patterns against the foundations of the turbidite conceptual model of Bouma (1962). KEB thickness is variable to approx. 100 km down-flow distance and attains a maximum thickness at approx. 700 km down-flow distance before thinning distally, similar to the predicted bell-shaped proximal to distal trend. Silt content is high throughout the KEB from canyon to fan. The KEB is dominated by laminated Td facies and Te facies that evolve down-system from laminated, then graded, to homogenous muds. CT and granulometry data are key to differentiating subtle density and textural variations within fine-grained deposits and reveal that KEB Td and Te facies in the KEB that are often not preserved or readily observed in older deposits. The KEB highlights a fine-grained sedimentary system that contrasts with more widely studied sandy turbidite basins. In particular, the KEB example reveals that Td and Te facies are ubiquitous in this fine-grained, silt-rich system. A varied conceptual model developed from the KEB may be applicable to many modern deep-sea turbidite systems and crucial for understanding present-day particulate transport to the deep sea and interpreting evidence from the stratigraphic record.


ISSN: 1527-1404
EISSN: 1938-3681
Serial Title: Journal of Sedimentary Research
Serial Volume: PRE-ISSUE PUBLICATION
Title: Testing turbidite conceptual models with the Kaikoura earthquake co-seismic event bed, Aotearoa New Zealand
Affiliation: National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington, New Zealand
Published: 20240220
Text Language: English
Publisher: Society for Sedimentary Geology, Tulsa, OK, United States
Number of pages: 34
References: 51
Accession Number: 2024-023753
Categories: Sedimentary petrologySeismology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 2 tables, sketch map
S42°30'00" - S41°00'00", E174°00'00" - E176°00'00"
Secondary Affiliation: University of Auckland, School of Environment, NZL, New ZealandEnvironmental and Earth Sciences, School of Geography, Victoria University of Wellington, NZL, New Zealand
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2024, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States. Reference includes data supplied by SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, OK, United States
Update Code: 202414
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