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Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of quartz; a review

Jens Goetze, Yuanming Pan and Axel Mueller
Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of quartz; a review
Mineralogical Magazine (October 2021) 85 (5): 639-664


Quartz (trigonal, low-temperature alpha -quartz) is the most important polymorph of the silica (SiO (sub 2) ) group and one of the purest minerals in the Earth crust. The mineralogy and mineral chemistry of quartz are determined mainly by its defect structure. Certain point defects, dislocations and micro-inclusions can be incorporated into quartz during crystallisation under various thermodynamic conditions and by secondary processes such as alteration, irradiation, diagenesis or metamorphism. The resulting real structure is a fingerprint of the specific physicochemical environment of quartz formation and also determines the quality and applications of SiO (sub 2) raw materials. Point defects in quartz can be related to imperfections associated with silicon or oxygen vacancies (intrinsic defects), to different types of displaced atoms, and/or to the incorporation of foreign ions in lattice sites and interstitial positions (extrinsic defects). Due to mismatch in charges and ionic radii only a limited number of ions can substitute for Si (super 4+) in the crystal lattice or can be incorporated in interstitial positions. Therefore, most impurity elements in quartz are present at concentrations below 1 ppm. The structural incorporation in a regular Si (super 4+) lattice site has been proven for Al (super 3+) , Ga (super 3+) , Fe (super 3+) , B (super 3+) , Ge (super 4+) , Ti (super 4+) , P (super 5+) and H (super +) , of which Al (super 3+) is by far the most common and typically the most abundant. Unambiguous detection and characterisation of defect structures in quartz are a technical challenge and can only be successfully realised by a combination of advanced analytical methods such as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy and spectroscopy as well as spatially resolved trace-element analysis such as laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The present paper presents a review of the state-of-the-art knowledge concerning the mineralogy and mineral-chemistry of quartz and illustrates important geological implications of the properties of quartz.

ISSN: 0026-461X
EISSN: 1471-8022
Serial Title: Mineralogical Magazine
Serial Volume: 85
Serial Issue: 5
Title: Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of quartz; a review
Affiliation: Technsche Universitat Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mineralogy, Freiberg, Germany
Pages: 639-664
Published: 202110
Text Language: English
Publisher: Mineralogical Society, London, United Kingdom
References: 270
Accession Number: 2022-004057
Categories: Mineralogy of silicates
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 1 table
Secondary Affiliation: University of Saskatchewan, CAN, CanadaUniversity of Oslo, NOR, Norway
Country of Publication: United Kingdom
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2022, American Geosciences Institute. Abstract, Copyright, Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States
Update Code: 2022
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