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Size variations in foraminifers from the Early Permian to the Late Triassic; implications for the Guadalupian-Lopingian and the Permian-Triassic mass extinctions

Feng Yan, Song Haijun and David P. G. Bond
Size variations in foraminifers from the Early Permian to the Late Triassic; implications for the Guadalupian-Lopingian and the Permian-Triassic mass extinctions
Paleobiology (November 2020) 46 (4): 511-532

Abstract

The final 10 Myr of the Paleozoic saw two of the biggest biological crises in Earth history: the middle Permian extinction (often termed the Guadalupian-Lopingian extinction [GLE]) that was followed 7-8 Myr later by Earth's most catastrophic loss of diversity, the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME). These crises are not only manifest as sharp decreases in biodiversity and - particularly for the PTME - total ecosystem collapse, but they also drove major changes in biological morphological characteristics such as the Lilliput effect. The evolution of test size among different clades of foraminifera during these two extinction events has been less studied. We analyzed a global database of foraminiferal test size (volume) including 20,226 specimens in 464 genera, 98 families, and 9 suborders from 632 publications. Our analyses reveal significant reductions in foraminiferal mean test size across the Guadalupian/Lopingian boundary (GLB) and the Permian/Triassic boundary (PTB), from 8.89 to 7.60 log (sub 10) mu m (super 3) (lg mu m (super 3) ) and from 7.25 to 5.82 lg mu m (super 3) , respectively. The decline in test size across the GLB is a function of preferential extinction of genera exhibiting gigantism such as fusulinoidean fusulinids. Other clades show little change in size across the GLB. In contrast, all Lopingian suborders in our analysis (Fusulinina, Lagenina, Miliolina, and Textulariina) experienced a significant decrease in test size across the PTB, mainly due to size-biased extinction and within-lineage change. The PTME was clearly a major catastrophe that affected many groups simultaneously, and the GLE was more selective, perhaps hinting at a subtler, less extreme driver than the later PTME.


ISSN: 0094-8373
EISSN: 1938-5331
Coden: PALBBM
Serial Title: Paleobiology
Serial Volume: 46
Serial Issue: 4
Title: Size variations in foraminifers from the Early Permian to the Late Triassic; implications for the Guadalupian-Lopingian and the Permian-Triassic mass extinctions
Affiliation: China University of Geosciences-Wuhan, State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, Wuhan, China
Pages: 511-532
Published: 202011
Text Language: English
Publisher: Paleontological Society, Lawrence, KS, United States
References: 161
Accession Number: 2021-003289
Categories: Invertebrate paleontology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 4 tables
Secondary Affiliation: University of Hull, GBR, United Kingdom
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2021, American Geosciences Institute. Abstract, Copyright, The Paleontological Society. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States
Update Code: 2021
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