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Mild displacements of boulders during the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquakes

Norman H. Sleep and Susan E. Hough
Mild displacements of boulders during the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquakes
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (May 2020) 110 (4): 1579-1588

Abstract

Strong seismic waves from the July 2019 Ridgecrest, California, earthquakes displaced rocks in proximity to the M 7.1 mainshock fault trace at several locations. In this report, we document large boulders that were displaced at the Wagon Wheel Staging Area (WWSA), approximately 4.5 km southeast of the southern terminus of the large M 6.4 foreshock rupture (hereafter "the large foreshock") and 9 km southwest of the nearest approach of the M 7.1 mainshock surface rupture. Some boulders appear to have slid along essentially flat surfaces, which suggest that dynamic stresses overcame the coefficient of friction. Other boulders appear to have rocked within their sockets. In both cases, we use simple mechanical models to estimate total peak dynamic accelerations between 0.5 and 1g, commensurate with modified Mercalli intensity 9. It is unclear if the strongest shaking at this location occurred during the large foreshock or the M 7.1 mainshock. The inferred accelerations are higher than predicted mainshock ground motions at WWSA, although local high accelerations could have been generated by path, site, or source effects. Gaps between boulders and their sockets are easily visible in the immediate aftermath of earthquakes and provide a quick indication of strong shaking. More importantly, the gaps quickly fill with surficial organic debris, including seeds and leaves of the year, that quickly become entombed. Boulders may thus potentially be extracted to examine gap fillings associated with past earthquakes, providing a new datable paleoseismic method.


ISSN: 0037-1106
EISSN: 1943-3573
Coden: BSSAAP
Serial Title: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America
Serial Volume: 110
Serial Issue: 4
Title: Mild displacements of boulders during the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquakes
Affiliation: Stanford University, Department of Geophysics, Stanford, CA, United States
Pages: 1579-1588
Published: 20200519
Text Language: English
Publisher: Seismological Society of America, Berkeley, CA, United States
References: 40
Accession Number: 2020-064834
Categories: Seismology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. sketch maps
N34°47'60" - N35°47'60", W120°15'00" - W117°40'00"
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2020, American Geosciences Institute. Abstract, Copyright, Seismological Society of America. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States
Update Code: 202040
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