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Characterization of traces of predation and parasitism on fossil echinoids

Lyndsey Farrar, Erin Graves, Elizabeth Petsios, Roger W. Portell, Tobias B. Grun, Michal Kowalewski and Carrie L. Tyler
Characterization of traces of predation and parasitism on fossil echinoids
Palaios (May 2020) 35 (5): 215-227


Interactions with predators and parasites can result in traces found on Recent and fossil echinoids. However, identifying specific trace makers, particularly on fossil echinoids, remains contentious. To document the range of trace morphologies present on echinoids and improve our ability to identify and quantify biotic interactions affecting echinoids, we characterized traces found on fossil echinoids using museum collections and field sampling spanning the Jurassic to Recent worldwide. Using light microscopy, 8,564 individual echinoid specimens were examined including 130 species, and 516 traces of potential biotic interactions identified. Morphological characteristics were recorded for each trace, including the shape of the trace outline, maximum diameter and cross-section profile. Based on shared morphological characteristics, it was possible to classify all traces into eight categories: circular, subcircular, elongated, irregular, rectangular, figure-eight, notched, and linear. Cross-section characteristics provided additional insights into the identity of potential trace makers. To further evaluate the proposed biotic origins of these traces, trace diversity was examined through time and compared with anticipated ecological trends associated with the diversification of echinoids, and their predators and parasites. Trace diversity increased over time, starting in the late Eocene, coincident with the proliferation of echinoid-drilling gastropods, an indication that biotic interactions intensified through evolutionary time, as predicted by several macroevolutionary hypotheses previously tested using mollusks. The morphological descriptions provided here enhance our understanding of biotic traces on fossil echinoids, and the potential to identify temporal trends in the intensity and diversity of biotic interactions that have affected echinoids throughout their evolutionary history.

ISSN: 0883-1351
Serial Title: Palaios
Serial Volume: 35
Serial Issue: 5
Title: Characterization of traces of predation and parasitism on fossil echinoids
Affiliation: Miami University, Department of Geology and Environmental Earth Science, Oxford, OH, United States
Pages: 215-227
Published: 202005
Text Language: English
Publisher: Society for Sedimentary Geology, Tulsa, OK, United States
References: 117
Accession Number: 2020-059117
Categories: Invertebrate paleontology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Annotation: NSF grants EAR-1630475 and EAR-1630276
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 2 tables, geol. sketch map
S44°00'00" - S10°00'00", E113°00'00" - E154°00'00"
N35°00'00" - N71°00'00", W25°00'00" - E75°00'00"
S35°00'00" - N37°00'00", W18°00'00" - E51°00'00"
Secondary Affiliation: Baylor University, USA, United StatesUniversity of Florida, USA, United States
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2020, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States. Reference includes data supplied by SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, OK, United States
Update Code: 2020
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