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Canyon shape and erosion dynamics governed by channel-hillslope feedbacks

Rachel C. Glade, Charles M. Shobe, Robert S. Anderson and Gregory E. Tucker
Canyon shape and erosion dynamics governed by channel-hillslope feedbacks
Geology (Boulder) (May 2019) 47 (7): 650-654

Abstract

Geologists frequently debate the origin of iconic river canyons, as well as the extent to which they record climatic and tectonic signals. Fluvial and hillslope processes work in concert to control canyon evolution; rivers both set the boundary conditions for adjoining hillslopes and respond to delivery of hillslope-derived sediment. But, what happens when canyon walls deliver boulders that are too large for a river to carry? River canyons commonly host large blocks of rock derived from resistant hillslope lithologies. Blocks have recently been shown to control the shapes of hillslopes and channels by inhibiting sediment transport and bedrock erosion. Here, we developed the first process-based model for canyon evolution that incorporates the roles of blocks in both hillslope and channel processes. Our model reveals that two-way negative channel-hillslope feedbacks driven by block delivery to the river result in characteristic plan-view and cross-sectional river canyon forms. Internal negative feedbacks strongly reduce the rate at which erosional signals pass through landscapes, leading to persistent local unsteadiness even under steady tectonic and climatic forcing. Surprisingly, while the presence of blocks in the channel initially slows incision rates, the subsequent removal of blocks from the oversteepened channel substantially increases incision rates. This interplay between channel and hillslope dynamics results in highly variable long-term erosion rates. These autogenic channel-hillslope dynamics can mask external signals, such as changes in rock uplift rate, complicating the interpretation of landscape morphology and erosion histories.


ISSN: 0091-7613
EISSN: 1943-2682
Coden: GLGYBA
Serial Title: Geology (Boulder)
Serial Volume: 47
Serial Issue: 7
Title: Canyon shape and erosion dynamics governed by channel-hillslope feedbacks
Affiliation: University of Colorado at Boulder, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, Boulder, CO, United States
Pages: 650-654
Published: 20190502
Text Language: English
Publisher: Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States
References: 26
Accession Number: 2019-046828
Categories: Geomorphology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Annotation: GSA Data Repository item 2019229
Illustration Description: illus.
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2019, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States. Reference includes data supplied by the Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, United States
Update Code: 201924
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