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Formation of diagenetic siderite in modern ferruginous sediments

Aurele Vuillemin, Richard Wirth, Helga Kemnitz, Anja M. Schleicher, Andre Friese, Kohen W. Bauer, Rachel Simister, Sulung Nomosatryo, Luis Ordonez, Daniel Ariztegui, Cynthia Henny, Sean A. Crowe, Liane G. Benning, Jens Kallmeyer, James M. Russell, Satria Bijaksana and Hendrik Vogel
Formation of diagenetic siderite in modern ferruginous sediments
Geology (Boulder) (April 2019) Pre-Issue Publication


Ferruginous conditions prevailed in the world's deep oceans during the Archean and Proterozoic Eons. Sedimentary iron formations deposited at that time may provide an important record of environmental conditions, yet linking the chemistry and mineralogy of these sedimentary rocks to depositional conditions remains a challenge due to a dearth of information about the processes by which minerals form in analogous modern environments. We identified siderites in ferruginous Lake Towuti, Indonesia, which we characterized using high-resolution microscopic and spectroscopic imaging combined with microchemical and geochemical analyses. We infer early diagenetic growth of siderite crystals as a response to sedimentary organic carbon degradation and the accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon in pore waters. We suggest that siderite formation proceeds through syntaxial growth on preexisting siderite crystals, or possibly through aging of precursor carbonate green rust. Crystal growth ultimately leads to spar-sized (>50 mu m) mosaic single siderite crystals that form twins, bundles, and spheroidal aggregates during burial. Early-formed carbonate was detectable through microchemical zonation and the possible presence of residual phases trapped in siderite interstices. This suggests that such microchemical zonation and mineral inclusions may be used to infer siderite growth histories in ancient sedimentary rocks including sedimentary iron formations.

ISSN: 0091-7613
EISSN: 1943-2682
Serial Title: Geology (Boulder)
Serial Volume: Pre-Issue Publication
Title: Formation of diagenetic siderite in modern ferruginous sediments
Affiliation: German Research Centre for Geosciences, Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
Affiliation: Lake Towuti Drilling Project Science TeamInternational
Published: 20190416
Text Language: English
Publisher: Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States
References: 32
Accession Number: 2019-038015
Categories: Sedimentary petrologyMineralogy of non-silicates
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Annotation: GSA Data Repository item 2019201
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 1 table
S02°45'00" - S02°45'00", E121°30'00" - E121°30'00"
Secondary Affiliation: University of British Columbia, CAN, CanadaUniversity of Geneva, CHE, SwitzerlandIndonesian Institute of Sciences, Research Center for Limnology, IDN, IndonesiaBrown University, USA, United StatesInstitut Teknologi Bandung, IDN, IndonesiaUniversity of Bern, CHE, Switzerland
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2019, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States. Reference includes data supplied by the Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, United States
Update Code: 2019
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