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Defect contributions to the heat capacities and stabilities of some chain, ring, and sheet silicates, with implications for mantle minerals

H. Wayne Nesbitt, A. N. Cormack and Grant S. Henderson
Defect contributions to the heat capacities and stabilities of some chain, ring, and sheet silicates, with implications for mantle minerals
American Mineralogist (November 2017) 102 (11): 2220-2229

Abstract

At temperatures less than approximately 1500 K, previously published C (sub P) data demonstrate that the heat capacities of orthoenstatite, proto-enstatite, diopside, and pseudowollastonite include primarily Debye type vibrational and anharmonic contributions, whereas the alkali chain, sheet, and ring silicates, Na (sub 2) SiO (sub 3) , Li (sub 2) SiO (sub 3) , K (sub 2) SiO (sub 3) , and Na (sub 2) Si (sub 2) O (sub 5) include a third contribution. The third contribution to C (sub P) arises from defect formation due to the mobility Na, K, Li, and O (super 2-) The contribution becomes apparent at temperatures above 700-800 K for Na and K silicates, and above 900-1000 K for Li metasilicate. With strong thermal agitation, alkali-non-bridging oxygen (NBO) bonds are ruptured with the cations exiting their structural sites to occupy interstitial sites, thereby producing intrinsic Frenkel defects, which contribute to the C (sub P) of the alkali silicates. The magnitudes of the C (sub P) defect contributions correlate inversely with cation-oxygen bond strengths, as measured by bond dissociation energies. K-O and Na-O bond strengths are weak (239 and 257 kJ/mol) and defect contributions are large for these alkali chain, ring, and sheet silicates. The greater bond strength of Li-O (341 kJ/mol) correlates with a weaker defect contribution to the C (sub P) of Li (sub 2) SiO (sub 3) Mg-O and Ca-O bonds are stronger still (394 and 464 kJ/mol) and no C (sub P) defect contributions are observed for the pyroxenes and pseudowollastonite up to approximately 1500 K.Above approximately 800 K a polymerization reaction occurs in Na (sub 2) SiO (sub 3) , which produces some Q (super 3) species and free oxygen (O (super 2-) or oxide ion). The polymerization reaction annihilates an oxygen structural site so that the O (super 2-) produced must reside on non-structural sites thus producing intrinsic anionic defects. The same reactions likely occur in Na (sub 2) Si (sub 2) O (sub 5) and K (sub 2) SiO (sub 3) Raman spectra of Na (sub 2) SiO (sub 3) indicate >10% of Na (super +) and approximately 1.7% of O (super 2-) on interstitial sites at 1348 K.Ca- and Mg-bearing mantle minerals subjected to temperature greater than approximately 1500 K experience the destabilizing effects of disordering (Frenkel defect formation). The minerals may respond either by changing their composition or by changing phase. An abundance of Ca and Na defects in pyroxenes, for example, likely promotes production of new components (e.g., CaAl (sub 2) SiO (sub 6) , NaAlSi (sub 2) O (sub 6) ) in pyroxenes. By their production, Ca and Na defect concentrations are reduced thereby stabilizing the phases. Mg-O bond dissociation and production of intrinsic Mg (super 2+) and O (super 2-) point defects within olivine likely destabilize it and promote the phase transition to wadsleyite at the base of the upper mantle.


ISSN: 0003-004X
EISSN: 1945-3027
Coden: AMMIAY
Serial Title: American Mineralogist
Serial Volume: 102
Serial Issue: 11
Title: Defect contributions to the heat capacities and stabilities of some chain, ring, and sheet silicates, with implications for mantle minerals
Affiliation: University of Western Ontario, Department of Earth Sciences, London, ON, Canada
Pages: 2220-2229
Published: 201711
Text Language: English
Publisher: Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, DC, United States
References: 57
Accession Number: 2018-021715
Categories: Geophysics of minerals and rocksGeneral mineralogy
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 3 tables
Secondary Affiliation: Alfred University, USA, United StatesUniversity of Toronto, CAN, Canada
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2019, American Geosciences Institute. Abstract, copyright, Mineralogical Society of America. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States
Update Code: 201806
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