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Image processing of seismic attributes for automatic fault extraction

Jie Qi, Bin Lyu, Abdulmohsen Al Ali, Gabriel Machado, Ying Hu and Kurt J. Marfurt
Image processing of seismic attributes for automatic fault extraction
Geophysics (January 2019) 84 (1): R1-R13

Abstract

Along with horizon picking, fault identification and interpretation is one of the key components for successful seismic data interpretation. Significant effort has been invested in accelerating seismic fault interpretation over the past three decades. Seismic amplitude data exhibiting good resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio are key to identifying structural discontinuities using coherence or other edge-detection attributes, which in turn serve as inputs for automatic fault extraction using image processing or machine learning techniques. Because seismic data exhibit not only structural reflectors but also seismic noise, we have developed a fault attribute workflow that contains footprint suppression, structure-oriented filtering, attribute computation, "unconformity" suppression, and our new iterative energy-weighted directional Laplacian of a Gaussian (LoG) operator. In general, tracking faults that exhibit a finite offset through a suite of conformal reflectors is relatively easy. Instead, we evaluate the effectiveness of this workflow by tracking faults through an incoherent mass-transport deposit, where the low-frequency contribution of multispectral coherence provides a good fault image. Multispectral coherence also reduces the "stair-step" fault artifacts seen on broadband data. Application of statistical filtering can preserve the discontinuity's boundaries and reject incoherent backgrounds. Finally, iterative application of an energy-weighted directional LoG operator provides improved fault image by sharpening low-coherence anomalies perpendicular and smoothing low-coherence anomalies parallel to fault surfaces, while at the same time attenuating locally nonplanar anomalies.


ISSN: 0016-8033
EISSN: 1942-2156
Coden: GPYSA7
Serial Title: Geophysics
Serial Volume: 84
Serial Issue: 1
Title: Image processing of seismic attributes for automatic fault extraction
Affiliation: University of Oklahoma, School of Geology and Geophysics, Norman, OK, United States
Pages: R1-R13
Published: 201901
Text Language: English
Publisher: Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa, OK, United States
Accession Number: 2019-006936
Categories: Applied geophysics
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2019, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data supplied by Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa, OK, United States
Update Code: 201906
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