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Incorporation of 3d elements in tourmalines; structural adjustments and stability

Oleg S. Vereshchagin, Olga V. Frank-Kamenetskaya, Ira V. Rozhdestvenskaya and Anatoly A. Zolotarev
Incorporation of 3d elements in tourmalines; structural adjustments and stability
European Journal of Mineralogy (September 2018) 30 (5): 917-928

Abstract

The crystal structure of 45 tourmalines containing trivalent cations (Me (super 3+) : Cr (super 3+) , V (super 3+) , Fe (super 3+) ) and 43 tourmalines containing divalent cations (Me (super 2+) : Fe (super 2+) , Mn (super 2+) , Co (super 2+) , Ni (super 2+) , Cu (super 2+) ) of 3d elements were analysed. We establish that the incorporation of Me (super 3+) cations is controlled by the ratio between the sizes of YO (sub 6) and ZO (sub 6) octahedra and does not exceed eight atoms per formula unit (apfu), while the incorporation of Me (super 2+) cations is controlled by the charge balance and does not exceed 3 apfu. We prove that there are no structural constraints controlling the incorporation of Co, Ni and Cu cations into the tourmaline structure at concentrations of up to 1 apfu. We show that, when the limiting content (less or equal to 1 apfu and 1.6 apfu for divalent and trivalent cations, respectively) is reached, these cations start to occupy not only YO (sub 6) , but also ZO (sub 6) octahedra, to maintain stability of the crystal structure. As the content of 3d-element cations increases further, the degree of disorder grows and, at a content of approximately 7 apfu, their distribution is close to statistical. An increase in the content of 3d cations, accompanied by their disordering, causes a decrease in disparity between sizes of YO (sub 6) and ZO (sub 6) octahedra and their deformations.


ISSN: 0935-1221
EISSN: 1617-4011
Serial Title: European Journal of Mineralogy
Serial Volume: 30
Serial Issue: 5
Title: Incorporation of 3d elements in tourmalines; structural adjustments and stability
Affiliation: Saint Petersburg State University, Institute of Earth Science, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
Pages: 917-928
Published: 201809
Text Language: English
Publisher: Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (Naegele u. Obermiller), Stuttgart, Germany
References: 106
Accession Number: 2018-096749
Categories: Mineralogy of silicates
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 8 tables
Country of Publication: Germany
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2019, American Geosciences Institute. Abstract, copyright, Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States
Update Code: 201851
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