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Experimental investigation of basalt and peridotite oxybarometers; implications for spinel thermodynamic models and Fe (super 3+) compatibility during generation of upper mantle melts

Fred A. Davis and Elizabeth Cottrell
Experimental investigation of basalt and peridotite oxybarometers; implications for spinel thermodynamic models and Fe (super 3+) compatibility during generation of upper mantle melts
American Mineralogist (July 2018) 103 (7): 1056-1067

Abstract

Peridotites dredged from mid-ocean ridges and glassy mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) transmit information about the oxygen fugacity (fO (sub 2) ) of Earth's convecting upper mantle to the surface. Equilibrium assemblages of olivine+orthopyroxene+spinel in abyssal peridotites and Fe (super 3+) /Sigma Fe ratios in MORB glasses measured by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) provide independent estimates of MORB source region fO (sub 2) , with the former recording fO (sub 2) approximately 0.8 log units lower than the latter relative to the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) buffer. To test cross-compatibility of these oxybarometers and examine the compositional effects of changing fO (sub 2) on a peridotite plus melt system over a range of Earth-relevant fO (sub 2) , we performed a series of experiments at 0.1 MPa and fO (sub 2) controlled by CO-CO (sub 2) gas mixes between QFM-1.87 and QFM+2.23 in a system containing basaltic andesite melt saturated in olivine, orthopyroxene, and spinel Oxygen fugacities recorded by each method are in agreement with each other and with the fO (sub 2) measured in the furnace. Measurements of fO (sub 2) from the two oxybarometers agree to within 1sigma in all experiments. These results demonstrate that the two methods are directly comparable and differences between fO (sub 2) measured in abyssal peridotites and MORB result from geographic sampling bias, petrological processes that change fO (sub 2) in these samples after separation of melts and residues, or abyssal peridotites may not be residues of MORB melting. As fO (sub 2) increases, spinel Fe (super 3+) concentrations increase only at the expense of Cr from QFM-1.87 to QFM-0.11. Above QFM, Al is also diluted in spinel as the cation proportion of Fe (super 3+) increases. None of the three spinel models tested, MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack 1995), SPINMELT (Ariskin and Nikolaev 1996), and MELT_CHROMITE (Poustovetov and Roeder 2001), describe these compositional effects, and we demonstrate that MELTS predicts residues that are too oxidized by >1 log unit to have equilibrated with the coexisting liquid phase. Spinels generated in this study can be used to improve future thermodynamic models needed to predict compositional changes in spinels caused by partial melting of peridotites in the mantle or by metamorphic reactions as peridotites cool in the lithosphere. In our experimental series, where the ratio of Fe (sub 2) O (sub 3) /FeO in the melt varies while other melt compositional parameters remain nearly constant, experimental melt fraction remains constant, and Fe (super 3+) becomes increasingly compatible in spinel as fO (sub 2) increases. Instead of promoting melting, increasing the bulk Fe (super 3+) /Sigma Fe ratio in peridotite drives reactions analogous to the fayalite-ferrosilite-magnetite reaction. This may partly explain the absence of correlation between Na (sub 2) O and Fe (sub 2) O (sub 3) in fractionation-corrected MORB.


ISSN: 0003-004X
EISSN: 1945-3027
Coden: AMMIAY
Serial Title: American Mineralogist
Serial Volume: 103
Serial Issue: 7
Title: Experimental investigation of basalt and peridotite oxybarometers; implications for spinel thermodynamic models and Fe (super 3+) compatibility during generation of upper mantle melts
Affiliation: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, United States
Pages: 1056-1067
Published: 201807
Text Language: English
Publisher: Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, DC, United States
References: 70
Accession Number: 2018-083823
Categories: Igneous and metamorphic petrologySolid-earth geophysics
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 2 tables
Secondary Affiliation: University of Minnesota at Duluth, USA, United States
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2018, American Geosciences Institute. Abstract, copyright, Mineralogical Society of America. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States
Update Code: 201821
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