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Quantitative seismic characterization of CO (sub 2) at the Sleipner storage site, North Sea

Bastien Dupuy, Anouar Romdhane, Peder Eliasson, Etor Querendez, Hong Yan, Veronica A. Torres and Amir Ghaderi
Quantitative seismic characterization of CO (sub 2) at the Sleipner storage site, North Sea
Interpretation (Tulsa) (August 2017) 5 (4): SS23-SS42

Abstract

Reliable quantification of carbon dioxide (CO (sub 2) ) properties and saturation is crucial in the monitoring of CO (sub 2) underground storage projects. We have focused on quantitative seismic characterization of CO (sub 2) at the Sleipner storage pilot site. We evaluate a methodology combining high-resolution seismic waveform tomography, with uncertainty quantification and rock physics inversion. We use full-waveform inversion (FWI) to provide high-resolution estimates of P-wave velocity V (sub P) and perform an evaluation of the reliability of the derived model based on posterior covariance matrix analysis. To get realistic estimates of CO (sub 2) saturation, we implement advanced rock physics models taking into account effective fluid phase theory and patchy saturation. We determine through sensitivity tests that the estimation of CO (sub 2) saturation is possible even when using only the P-wave velocity as input. After a characterization of rock frame properties based on log data prior to the CO (sub 2) injection at Sleipner, we apply our two-step methodology. The FWI result provides clear indications of the injected CO (sub 2) plume being observed as low-velocity zones corresponding to thin CO (sub 2) filled layers. Several tests, varying the rock physics model and CO (sub 2) properties, are then performed to estimate CO (sub 2) saturation. The results suggest saturations reaching 30%-35% in the thin sand layers and up to 75% when patchy mixing is considered. We have carried out a joint estimation of saturation with distribution type and, even if the inversion is not well-constrained due to limited input data, we conclude that the CO (sub 2) has an intermediate pattern between uniform and patchy mixing, which leads to saturation levels of approximately 25% + or - 15% It is worth noting that the 2D section used in this work is located 533 m east of the injection point. We also conclude that the joint estimation of CO (sub 2) properties with saturation is not crucial and consequently that knowing the pressure and temperature state of the reservoir does not prevent reliable estimation of CO (sub 2) saturation.


ISSN: 2324-8858
EISSN: 2324-8866
Serial Title: Interpretation (Tulsa)
Serial Volume: 5
Serial Issue: 4
Title: Quantitative seismic characterization of CO (sub 2) at the Sleipner storage site, North Sea
Affiliation: SINTEF Petroleum, Trondheim, Norway
Pages: SS23-SS42
Published: 201708
Text Language: English
Publisher: Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa, OK, United States
References: 80
Accession Number: 2017-090051
Categories: Applied geophysics
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 4 tables, sects.
N58°15'00" - N58°30'00", E01°45'00" - E02°00'00"
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States. Reference includes data supplied by Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa, OK, United States
Update Code: 201747
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