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Sedimentology, facies architecture, and sequence stratigraphy of a Mississippian black mudstone succession; the upper member of the Bakken Formation, North Dakota, United States

Damien Borcovsky, Sven Egenhoff, N. Fishman, J. Maletz, A. Boehlke and H. Lowers
Sedimentology, facies architecture, and sequence stratigraphy of a Mississippian black mudstone succession; the upper member of the Bakken Formation, North Dakota, United States
AAPG Bulletin (October 2017) 101 (10): 1625-1673

Abstract

The Lower Mississippian upper shale member of the Bakken Formation in the Williston Basin, North Dakota, consists of organic-rich, black, siliciclastic mudstones deposited offshore on a low-gradient shelf; 12 fine-grained facies are recognized and grouped into 5 facies associations (FAs). Very fine-grained, massive to faintly laminated mudstone (FA1) records deposition in the deepest, calmest parts of the basin, whereas well-laminated mudstones (FA2a); well-laminated, clay-clast-bearing mudstones (FA2b); burrow-mottled mudstone with shells (FA3); and interlaminated siltstone and mudstone (FA4) suggest deposition in the shallower, less calm, and more proximal offshore environment. These proximal-offshore mudstones (FA2a, FA2b, FA3, and FA4) reflect (1) variation in bottom-water oxygen levels and (2) lateral changes in the input of silt and clay clasts. Ubiquitous Phycosiphon fecal strings, patches of shells, burrows, and rare agglutinated foraminifera indicate dysoxic to suboxic basinal deposition and not a persistently anoxic environment. In all FAs, storm-event laminae are sparse to ubiquitous. Repeated stacking of FAs defines up to 10 coarsening-upward parasequences mostly 0.15-0.60 m (0.49-1.97 ft) thick. Individual parasequences can be correlated for 300 km (180 mi) through the basin. The lower half of the succession (interval 1) represents a transgressive systems tract and shows high radiolarian productivity with minor silt input. The upper half of the succession (interval 2) represents the base of a highstand systems tract. In contrast to interval 1, interval 2 mudstones are characterized by high clay content, low radiolarian productivity, and intermittent colonization of the sea floor during higher-order sea-level lowstands.


ISSN: 0149-1423
EISSN: 1558-9153
Coden: AABUD2
Serial Title: AAPG Bulletin
Serial Volume: 101
Serial Issue: 10
Title: Sedimentology, facies architecture, and sequence stratigraphy of a Mississippian black mudstone succession; the upper member of the Bakken Formation, North Dakota, United States
Affiliation: Colorado State University, Department of Geosciences, Fort Collins, CO, United States
Pages: 1625-1673
Published: 201710
Text Language: English
Publisher: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, United States
References: 97
Accession Number: 2017-087904
Categories: StratigraphySedimentary petrology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. block diags., sects., strat. cols., 4 tables, sketch maps
N49°00'00" - N60°00'00", W102°00'00" - W89°30'00"
N45°55'00" - N49°00'00", W104°04'60" - W96°34'60"
N49°00'00" - N60°00'00", W110°00'00" - W101°19'60"
Secondary Affiliation: U. S. Geological Survey, USA, United StatesFreie Universitaet Berlin, DEU, Germany
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States. Reference includes data supplied by American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, United States
Update Code: 201746
Program Name: USGSOPNon-USGS publications with USGS authors
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