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Dynamic strains for earthquake source characterization

Andrew J. Barbour and Brendan W. Crowell
Dynamic strains for earthquake source characterization
Seismological Research Letters (March 2017) 88 (2A): 354-370

Abstract

Strainmeters measure elastodynamic deformation associated with earthquakes over a broad frequency band, with detection characteristics that complement traditional instrumentation, but they are commonly used to study slow transient deformation along active faults and at subduction zones, for example. Here, we analyze dynamic strains at Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) borehole strainmeters (BSM) associated with 146 local and regional earthquakes from 2004-2014, with magnitudes from M 4.5 to 7.2. We find that peak values in seismic strain can be predicted from a general regression against distance and magnitude, with improvements in accuracy gained by accounting for biases associated with site-station effects and source-path effects, the latter exhibiting the strongest influence on the regression coefficients. To account for the influence of these biases in a general way, we include crustal-type classifications from the CRUST1.0 global velocity model, which demonstrates that high-frequency strain data from the PBO BSM network carry information on crustal structure and fault mechanics: earthquakes nucleating offshore on the Blanco fracture zone, for example, generate consistently lower dynamic strains than earthquakes around the Sierra Nevada microplate and in the Salton trough. Finally, we test our dynamic strain prediction equations on the 2011 M 9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, specifically continuous strain records derived from triangulation of 137 high-rate Global Navigation Satellite System Earth Observation Network stations in Japan. Moment magnitudes inferred from these data and the strain model are in agreement when Global Positioning System subnetworks are unaffected by spatial aliasing.


ISSN: 0895-0695
EISSN: 1938-2057
Serial Title: Seismological Research Letters
Serial Volume: 88
Serial Issue: 2A
Title: Dynamic strains for earthquake source characterization
Affiliation: U. S. Geological Survey, Earthquake Science Center, Menlo Park, CA, United States
Pages: 354-370
Published: 201703
Text Language: English
Publisher: Seismological Society of America, El Cerrito, CA, United States
References: 59
Accession Number: 2017-037461
Categories: Structural geologySeismology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. sketch maps
N31°00'00" - N34°00'00", W117°00'00" - W114°00'00"
Secondary Affiliation: University of Washington, USA, United States
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute. Abstract, Copyright, Seismological Society of America. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States
Update Code: 201721
Program Name: USGSOPNon-USGS publications with USGS authors
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