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Early magmatism in the greater Red Sea Rift; timing and significance

William Bosworth and Daniel F. Stockli
Early magmatism in the greater Red Sea Rift; timing and significance (in Uniformitarianism and plate tectonics; a tribute to Kevin C.A. Burke and John F. Dewey--L'uniformitarisme et la tectonique des plaques; hommage a Kevin C.A. Burke et a John F. Dewey, A. M. Celal Sengor (editor) and Ali Polat (editor))
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences = Revue Canadienne des Sciences de la Terre (November 2016) 53 (11): 1158-1176

Abstract

Throughout the greater Red Sea rift system the initial late Cenozoic syn-rift strata and extensional faulting are closely associated with alkali basaltic volcanism. Older stratigraphic units are either pre-rift or deposited during pre-rupture mechanical weakening of the lithosphere. The East African superplume appeared in northeast Africa approximately 46 Ma but was not accompanied by any significant extensional faulting. Continental rifting began in the eastern and central Gulf of Aden at approximately 31-30 Ma coeval with the onset of continental flood volcanism in northern Ethiopia, Eritrea, and western Yemen. Volcanism appeared soon after at Derudeb in southern Sudan and at Harrats Hadan and As Sirat in Saudi Arabia. From approximately 26.5 to 25 Ma a new phase of volcanism began with the intrusion of a dike field reaching southeast of Afar into the Ogaden. At 24-23 Ma dikes were emplaced nearly simultaneously north of Afar and reached over 2000 km into northern Egypt. The dike event linked Afar to the smaller Cairo mini-plume and corresponds to initiation of lithospheric extension and rupture in the central and northern Red Sea and Gulf of Suez. By approximately 21 Ma the dike intrusions along the entire length of the Red Sea were completed. Each episodic enlargement of the greater Red Sea rift system was triggered and facilitated by breakthrough of mantle-derived plumes. However, the absence of any volumetrically significant rift-related volcanism during the main phase of Miocene central and northern Red Sea - Gulf of Suez rifting supports the interpretation that plate-boundary forces likely drove overall separation of Arabia from Africa.


ISSN: 0008-4077
EISSN: 1480-3313
Coden: CJESAP
Serial Title: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences = Revue Canadienne des Sciences de la Terre
Serial Volume: 53
Serial Issue: 11
Title: Early magmatism in the greater Red Sea Rift; timing and significance
Title: Uniformitarianism and plate tectonics; a tribute to Kevin C.A. Burke and John F. Dewey--L'uniformitarisme et la tectonique des plaques; hommage a Kevin C.A. Burke et a John F. Dewey
Author(s): Bosworth, WilliamStockli, Daniel F.
Author(s): Sengor, A. M. Celaleditor
Author(s): Polat, Alieditor
Affiliation: Apache Egypt Companies, Cairo, Egypt
Affiliation: Istanbul Teknik Universitesi, Avrasya Yerbilimleri Enstitusu, Istanbul, Turkey
Pages: 1158-1176
Published: 201611
Text Language: English
Summary Language: French
Publisher: National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
References: 179
Accession Number: 2017-006350
Categories: Solid-earth geophysics
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. geol. sketch maps
N04°00'00" - N12°00'00", E34°00'00" - E48°00'00"
N22°00'00" - N32°00'00", E24°00'00" - E36°00'00"
Secondary Affiliation: University of Texas at Austin, USA, United States
Country of Publication: Canada
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from Canadian Science Publishing, NRC Research Press, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States
Update Code: 201705
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