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Rapid priming, accumulation, and recharge of magma driving recent eruptions at a hyperactive caldera volcano

Simon J. Barker, Colin J. N. Wilson, Daniel J. Morgan and Julie V. Rowland
Rapid priming, accumulation, and recharge of magma driving recent eruptions at a hyperactive caldera volcano
Geology (Boulder) (March 2016) 44 (4): 323-326

Abstract

A major challenge in volcanology is determining the factors that control the frequency and magnitude of eruptions at hazardous caldera volcanoes. Understanding the critical sequence of events that may lead to future eruptions is vital for volcanic monitoring and risk assessment. Here we use magma chemistry and mineral diffusion modeling to interpret the magmatic processes and time scales involved in the youngest three eruptions (2.15-1.7 ka) from Taupo volcano (New Zealand), which peaked with the voluminous A.D. 232 eruption. Of the rhyolites erupted since ca. 12 ka, the <2.15 ka magmas have the lowest whole-rock SiO (sub 2) content and reversely zoned crystals, yet with high-SiO (sub 2) melt inclusions. Mineral zonations and compositional shifts reflect a 30-40 degrees C temperature increase over the immediately preceding (>2.75 ka) rhyolites that were tapped from the same magma reservoir. Orthopyroxene Fe-Mg diffusion time scales indicate that the onset of rapid heating and priming of the host silicic mush occurred <120 yr prior to the <2.15 ka eruptions, with subsequent melt accumulation occurring in only decades. Elevated mafic magma supply to the silicic mush pile, rapid melt accumulation, and high differential tectonic stress built up and culminated in the approximately 105 km (super 3) A.D. 232 eruption, one of the largest and most violent Holocene eruptions globally. These youngest eruptions demonstrate how Taupo's magmatic system can rapidly change behavior to generate large eruptible melt bodies on time scales of direct relevance to humans and monitoring initiatives.


ISSN: 0091-7613
EISSN: 1943-2682
Coden: GLGYBA
Serial Title: Geology (Boulder)
Serial Volume: 44
Serial Issue: 4
Title: Rapid priming, accumulation, and recharge of magma driving recent eruptions at a hyperactive caldera volcano
Affiliation: Victoria University, School of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences, Wellington, New Zealand
Pages: 323-326
Published: 20160309
Text Language: English
Publisher: Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States
References: 20
Accession Number: 2016-033018
Categories: Quaternary geology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Annotation: GSA Data Repository item 2016100
Illustration Description: illus. incl. sketch map
S38°49'00" - S38°49'00", E176°00'00" - E176°00'00"
Secondary Affiliation: University of Leeds, GBR, United KingdomUniversity of Auckland, NZL, New Zealand
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States. Reference includes data supplied by the Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, United States
Update Code: 201616
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