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Menominee Crack; bedrock pop-up event near Menominee, Michigan

Joshua P. Richardson, Wayne D. Pennington, Gregory P. Waite, Matthew Galambus, Federica Lanza and Luke Bowman
Menominee Crack; bedrock pop-up event near Menominee, Michigan
Seismological Research Letters (April 2016) 87 (2A): 267-273


In the early morning of 4 October 2010, a loud noise was heard and shaking was felt in a rural area north of Menominee, Michigan. Within a day, residents discovered what we now identify as a "pop-up" feature; due to the extensional crack along its crest, it has become known as the Menominee Crack. Within a few days, physical observations were made, and an additional geophysical survey was conducted in 2013 to further investigate the origin of the crack and associated ridge. An autoleveling and seismic refraction survey performed at the site revealed a bedrock layer approximately 2 m underneath the glacial till and also found a significant difference in bedrock velocities observed parallel and perpendicular to the crack. Modeling of a fractured limestone, assuming the seismic raypaths cross fractures in one direction but not in the other, is consistent with these velocities. The origin of the feature remains unknown. Glacial unloading was complete many thousands of years ago, and no significant removal of overburden occurred in recent years, although the occurrence and timing of the removal of a large tree may be more than coincidental.

ISSN: 0895-0695
EISSN: 1938-2057
Serial Title: Seismological Research Letters
Serial Volume: 87
Serial Issue: 2A
Title: Menominee Crack; bedrock pop-up event near Menominee, Michigan
Affiliation: Michigan Technological University, Department of Geological & Mining Engineering & Sciences, Houghton, MI, United States
Pages: 267-273
Published: 201604
Text Language: English
Publisher: Seismological Society of America, El Cerrito, CA, United States
References: 21
Accession Number: 2016-025764
Categories: Seismology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. sketch maps
N45°12'00" - N45°12'00", W87°30'00" - W87°30'00"
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute. Abstract, Copyright, Seismological Society of America. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States
Update Code: 201613
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