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Mineralogical transformations in sandstone; a fingerprint for prehistorical heating of Palaeolithic hearth stones

Tim de Kock, Mathijs Dumon, Marcos Lanzon, Arne Verbrugge, Eric van Ranst, Philippe Crombe and Veerle Cnudde
Mineralogical transformations in sandstone; a fingerprint for prehistorical heating of Palaeolithic hearth stones
European Journal of Mineralogy (July 2015) 27 (5): 651-657

Abstract

At the prehistoric site of Rosalinde in Ruien (Belgium) sandstone blocks of local origin have been found in a configuration that was tentatively interpreted by the archaeologists as a hearth. These sandstones are identified as ferruginous sandstone and glauconiferous sandstone, and each block shows a discoloured rim which is not typically observed on these lithotypes. In order to confirm their use as hearth stones, the mineralogy in the discoloured rim was studied and compared to the bulk mineralogical composition by means of optical petrography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dithionite-citrate bicarbonate extraction (DCB). In the ferruginous sandstone, XRD and DSC illustrate the transformation of amorphous iron oxides and goethite into hematite. In the glauconiferous sandstone, however, the amount of iron oxide phases is too low for detection with XRD and DSC. In this case, the dark brown discolouration of the glauconite grains, together with the higher free iron oxide content in the rim than in the bulk as indicated by DCB analysis, are most suggestive of a mineralogical transformation due to heating. The heating temperature is estimated between 300 and 600 degrees C. Despite the absence of charcoal, the combined evidence obtained on the two lithotypes suggests the use of this specific stone arrangement as a hearth at the prehistoric site of Ruien.


ISSN: 0935-1221
EISSN: 1617-4011
Serial Title: European Journal of Mineralogy
Serial Volume: 27
Serial Issue: 5
Title: Mineralogical transformations in sandstone; a fingerprint for prehistorical heating of Palaeolithic hearth stones
Affiliation: Ghent University, Department of Geology and Soil Science, Ghent, Belgium
Pages: 651-657
Published: 20150720
Text Language: English
Publisher: Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (Naegele u. Obermiller), Stuttgart, Germany
References: 28
Accession Number: 2015-082164
Categories: Quaternary geologySedimentary petrology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. sketch map
N50°46'23" - N50°46'23", E03°28'51" - E03°28'51"
Secondary Affiliation: Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, ESP, SpainSOLVA, BEL, Belgium
Country of Publication: Germany
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute. Abstract, copyright, Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States
Update Code: 201535
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