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Explosive volcanic history and hazard zonation maps of Boqueron Volcano (San Salvador volcanic complex, El Salvador)

D. Ferres, H. Delgado Granados, R. E. Gutierrez, I. A. Farraz, E. W. Hernandez, C. R. Pullinger and C. D. Escobar
Explosive volcanic history and hazard zonation maps of Boqueron Volcano (San Salvador volcanic complex, El Salvador) (in Understanding open vent volcanism and related hazards, William I. Rose (editor), Jose Luis Palma (editor), Hugo Delgado Granados (editor) and Nick Varley (editor))
Special Paper - Geological Society of America (November 2013) 498: 201-230


Boqueron Volcano, formed on the old San Salvador Volcano, is the youngest and active central edifice of the San Salvador volcanic complex, which also includes 25 secondary vents. The San Salvador volcanic complex is located in the vicinity of the San Salvador metropolitan area and is considered one of the most hazardous volcanic centers in El Salvador and Central America. Boqueron Volcano has a long record of effusive and explosive eruptions spanning 36,000 yr; the most recent eruption was in 1917. We reviewed and updated its eruptive history through detailed fieldwork, allowing the recognition of up to 25 different eruptions. Lava flows, ash-fall, and ballistic projectile deposits produced by Strombolian or violent-Strombolian eruptions are the most recurrent events preserved in the stratigraphic record of Boqueron Volcano. Pyroclastic-flow, and especially pyroclastic-surge, deposits are also present, indicative of explosive subplinian and Plinian eruptions, some of which had significant phreatomagmatic components. We define three hazard scenarios regarding ash fall, ballistic projectiles, and pyroclastic density currents for Boqueron Volcano and constrain them using its documented explosive eruptive history, fieldwork, and computer simulations. Each scenario is characterized by a likelihood of occurrence (high, medium, low), assigned to eruptive events of small, intermediate, or large magnitude, which are mainly characterized for the areal distribution of the related volcanic products. Resulting hazard maps show areas likely to be affected by future eruptions, enabling decision makers and the general public to consider volcanic hazards in land development and risk mitigation planning.

ISSN: 0072-1077
EISSN: 2331-219X
Serial Title: Special Paper - Geological Society of America
Serial Volume: 498
Title: Explosive volcanic history and hazard zonation maps of Boqueron Volcano (San Salvador volcanic complex, El Salvador)
Title: Understanding open vent volcanism and related hazards
Author(s): Ferres, D.Delgado Granados, H.Gutierrez, R. E.Farraz, I. A.Hernandez, E. W.Pullinger, C. R.Escobar, C. D.
Author(s): Rose, William I.editor
Author(s): Palma, Jose Luiseditor
Author(s): Granados, Hugo Delgadoeditor
Author(s): Varley, Nickeditor
Affiliation: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Departamento de Vulcanologia, Instituto de Geofisica, Mexico City, Mexico
Affiliation: Michigan Technological University, Geological Engineering and Sciences, Houghton, MI, United States
Pages: 201-230
Published: 201311
Text Language: English
Publisher: Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States
References: 60
Accession Number: 2014-004174
Categories: Quaternary geology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 3 tables, geol. sketch maps
N13°40'00" - N13°40'00", W89°10'00" - W89°10'00"
Secondary Affiliation: Universidad de Concepcion, CHL, ChileUniversidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, MEX, MexicoUniversidad de Colima, MEX, MexicoMinisterio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, SLV, El SalvadorTerracon Ingenieria, MEX, Mexico
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data supplied by the Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, United States
Update Code: 201404
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