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Shallow groundwater geochemistry in the Espanola Basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico; evidence for structural control of a deep thermal source

P. S. Johnson, Daniel J. Koning and F. K. Partey
Shallow groundwater geochemistry in the Espanola Basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico; evidence for structural control of a deep thermal source (in New perspectives on Rio Grande Rift basins; from tectonics to groundwater, Mark R. Hudson (editor) and V. J. S. Grauch (editor))
Special Paper - Geological Society of America (April 2013) 494: 261-301

Abstract

We have developed a conceptual model for the Tesuque aquifer system in the southeastern Espanola Basin near Santa Fe, New Mexico, based on measurements of chemical, isotopic, and thermal properties of groundwater from 120 wells. This study concentrates on a single groundwater-flow unit (GFU) of the Tesuque aquifer associated with the Santa Fe River drainage, where groundwater flows east to west across north-trending rift structures. We examine links between groundwater flow, temperature, water chemistry, and major fault structures. Hydrologic and hydrochemical processes are assessed through spatial mapping of temperature and chemical composition (Ca:Na ratios, F, As, B, Li, delta (super 2) H, and delta (super 18) O), Piper and bivariate plots, Spearman rank-order correlations, and flow-line modeling of mineral saturation (PHREEQC software). Results help delineate recharge and discharge areas and demonstrate spatial correspondence of major rift structures with changes in chemical and thermal data. Thermal wells with anomalous discharge temperatures and regional thermal gradients exceeding 40 degrees C/km align with structural boundaries of the Canada Ancha graben and Caja del Rio horst. Mg-Li geothermometry characterizes temperatures associated with deep circulating groundwater. Important features of the conceptual model are (1) a forced convection system in the Tesuque aquifer associated with the Caja del Rio horst drives upward flow and discharge of warm, Na-rich groundwater in the western half of the Canada Ancha graben; and (2) major horst-graben structures concentrate upward flow of deep, NaSO (sub 4) thermal waters from underlying bedrock. Both features likely contribute to chemical anomalies and thermal disturbances in the shallow Tesuque aquifer.


ISSN: 0072-1077
EISSN: 2331-219X
Coden: GSAPAZ
Serial Title: Special Paper - Geological Society of America
Serial Volume: 494
Title: Shallow groundwater geochemistry in the Espanola Basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico; evidence for structural control of a deep thermal source
Title: New perspectives on Rio Grande Rift basins; from tectonics to groundwater
Author(s): Johnson, P. S.Koning, Daniel J.Partey, F. K.
Author(s): Hudson, Mark R.editor
Author(s): Grauch, V. J. S.editor
Affiliation: New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM, United States
Affiliation: U. S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO, United States
Pages: 261-301
Published: 201304
Text Language: English
Publisher: Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States
References: 79
Accession Number: 2013-049661
Categories: HydrochemistryHydrogeology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. geol. sketch maps, 10 tables, sects.
N35°19'60" - N35°49'60", W106°19'60" - W105°49'60"
Secondary Affiliation: Agrium, USA, United States
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data supplied by the Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, United States
Update Code: 201331
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