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Cats in the forest; predicting habitat adaptations from humerus morphometry in extant and fossil Felidae (Carnivora)

Carlo Meloro, Sarah Elton, Julien Louys, Laura C. Bishop and Peter Ditchfield
Cats in the forest; predicting habitat adaptations from humerus morphometry in extant and fossil Felidae (Carnivora)
Paleobiology (June 2013) 39 (3): 323-344


Mammalian carnivores are rarely incorporated in paleoenvironmental reconstructions, largely because of their rarity within the fossil record. However, multivariate statistical modeling can be successfully used to quantify specific anatomical features as environmental predictors. Here we explore morphological variability of the humerus in a closely related group of predators (Felidae) to investigate the relationship between morphometric descriptors and habitat categories. We analyze linear measurements of the humerus in three different morphometric combinations (log-transformed, size-free, and ratio), and explore four distinct ways of categorizing habitat adaptations. Open, Mixed, and Closed categories are defined according to criteria based on traditional descriptions of species, distributions, and biome occupancy. Extensive exploratory work is presented using linear discriminant analyses and several fossils are included to provide paleoecological reconstructions. We found no significant differences in the predictive power of distinct morphometric descriptors or habitat criteria, although sample splitting into small and large cat guilds greatly improves the stability of the models. Significant insights emerge for three long-canine cats: Smilodon populator, Paramachairodus orientalis, and Dinofelis sp. from Olduvai Gorge (East Africa). S. populator and P. orientalis are both predicted to have been closed-habitat adapted taxa. The false "sabertooth" Dinofelis sp. from Olduvai Gorge is predicted to be adapted to mixed habitat. The application of felid humerus ecomorphology to the carnivoran record of Olduvai Gorge shows that the older stratigraphic levels (Bed I, 1.99-1.79 Ma) included a broader range of environments than Beds II or V, where there is an abundance of cats adapted to open environments.

ISSN: 0094-8373
EISSN: 1938-5331
Serial Title: Paleobiology
Serial Volume: 39
Serial Issue: 3
Title: Cats in the forest; predicting habitat adaptations from humerus morphometry in extant and fossil Felidae (Carnivora)
Affiliation: University of Hull, Hull York Medical School, Hull, United Kingdom
Pages: 323-344
Published: 201306
Text Language: English
Publisher: Paleontological Society, Lawrence, KS, United States
References: 94
Accession Number: 2013-047953
Categories: Vertebrate paleontology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 7 tables
S03°15'00" - S03°15'00", E35°30'00" - E35°30'00"
Secondary Affiliation: Liverpool John Moores University, GBR, United KingdomUniversity of Oxford, GBR, United Kingdom
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute. Abstract, Copyright, The Paleontological Society. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States
Update Code: 201330
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