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Hydrogeologic heterogeneity of faulted and fractured Glass Mountain bedded tuffaceous sediments and ash-fall deposits; the Crucifix site near Bishop, California

Cynthia L. Dinwiddie, Kelly Keighley Bradbury, Ronald N. McGinnis, David E. Stillman and David A. Ferrill
Hydrogeologic heterogeneity of faulted and fractured Glass Mountain bedded tuffaceous sediments and ash-fall deposits; the Crucifix site near Bishop, California
Lithosphere (January 2012) 4 (1): 40-62

Abstract

Lithologic, macrostructural, microstructural, geophysical, and in situ gas permeability data from a natural exposure of highly porous, faulted and fractured tuffaceous sediments and interbedded ash-fall deposits near Bishop, California, are presented and analyzed in relation to published geologic information. This natural analog study was motivated by the need to evaluate potential length scales over which lateral flow diversion might occur above and within the nonwelded Paintbrush Tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Lateral diversion of flow in the overlying Paintbrush Tuff was previously proposed by others as a natural barrier that might protect a proposed high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel repository from percolating water. Because the length scale for capillary barrier breakthrough and leakage is decreased in the presence of subvertical structural heterogeneities, we characterized a horst-bounding fault, small-displacement normal faults within a footwall deformation zone, and secondary heterogeneities within two beds dissected by the faults. Critical deformation-related features that may influence fluid flow within bedded tuffaceous sediments include (1) permeability anisotropy imposed by steeply dipping faults and stratigraphic layering; (2) fault zone widths and styles, which are dependent on bed thickness and ash, glass, and clay content; and (3) fracture intensities and overprinting mechanisms (associated with fault deformation and vertical and nonvertical fracture orientations), which strongly influence the hydrogeologic heterogeneity of units they dissect. Microstructural analysis reveals structurally induced porosity variations at the micrometer to millimeter scale, gas permeability data show the influence of deformation on permeability at the centimeter to tens of centimeters scale, and resistivity and ground-penetrating radar data show lateral variations on the meter to tens of meters scale in horizontally bedded layers. All together, these observations and data show heterogeneity over seven orders of magnitude of length scale. Structurally enhanced porosity and permeability heterogeneities will tend to limit the length scale of lateral flow diversion, redirect flow downward, and enhance vertical fluid movement within the vadose zone.


ISSN: 1941-8264
EISSN: 1947-4253
Serial Title: Lithosphere
Serial Volume: 4
Serial Issue: 1
Title: Hydrogeologic heterogeneity of faulted and fractured Glass Mountain bedded tuffaceous sediments and ash-fall deposits; the Crucifix site near Bishop, California
Affiliation: Southwest Research Institute, Department of Earth, Material, and Planetary Sciences, San Antonio, TX, United States
Pages: 40-62
Published: 20120109
Text Language: English
Publisher: Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, United States
References: 114
Accession Number: 2012-016482
Categories: Structural geologyHydrogeology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 2 tables, sketch map
N37°25'06" - N37°25'06", W100°25'39" - W100°25'39"
Secondary Affiliation: Utah State University, USA, United States
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States. Reference includes data supplied by the Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, United States
Update Code: 201209
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