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Fault formation in porous sedimentary rocks at high strain rates; first results from the Upheaval Dome impact structure, Utah, USA

Wendy R. O. Key and Richard A. Schultz
Fault formation in porous sedimentary rocks at high strain rates; first results from the Upheaval Dome impact structure, Utah, USA
Geological Society of America Bulletin (May 2011) 123 (5-6): 1161-1170

Abstract

Previous theoretical work has suggested that porous sedimentary rocks subjected to sufficiently high strain rates may not form deformation band damage zones (DBDZs). This hypothesis is evaluated by an examination of faults within the porous Navajo Sandstone at the Upheaval Dome impact structure in Canyonlands National Park, southeastern Utah, where high strain-rate conditions are known to have occurred. We found no evidence for DBDZ formation along the accessible fault planes at Upheaval Dome. Instead, a layer of pulverized quartz grains within the Navajo Sandstone occurs adjacent to the fault planes. Similar material has been observed in association with dynamic rupture in crystalline and sedimentary rocks along the San Andreas fault in southern California and in metamorphic rocks along the Bosman fault in South Africa. Measured grain sizes obtained from the pulverized material collected at Upheaval Dome are consistent with strain rates of approximately 1-3X10 (super 3) s (super -1) . Pulverized sedimentary rocks along the San Andreas fault imply strain rates of approximately 10 (super -2) to 10 (super 1) s (super -1) . Strain rates along the faults at Upheaval Dome are well above the average values associated with intraplate tectonics but are consistent with, or faster than, seismic slip rates along faults such as the San Andreas fault. Our results support the hypothesized rate dependence of deformation in porous rocks.


ISSN: 0016-7606
EISSN: 1943-2674
Coden: BUGMAF
Serial Title: Geological Society of America Bulletin
Serial Volume: 123
Serial Issue: 5-6
Title: Fault formation in porous sedimentary rocks at high strain rates; first results from the Upheaval Dome impact structure, Utah, USA
Affiliation: University of Nevada, Reno, Geomechanics-Rock Fracture Group, Reno, NV, United States
Pages: 1161-1170
Published: 201105
Text Language: English
Publisher: Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States
References: 83
Accession Number: 2011-044441
Categories: Structural geology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 1 table, strat. col.
N37°55'00" - N38°30'00", W110°10'00" - W109°40'00"
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2019, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States. Reference includes data supplied by the Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, United States
Update Code: 201125
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