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Quantitative modeling of the evolution and geometry of incised valleys

John Martin, Alessandro Cantelli, Chris Paola, Michael Blum and Matthew Wolinsky
Quantitative modeling of the evolution and geometry of incised valleys
Journal of Sedimentary Research (January 2011) 81 (1): 64-79

Abstract

Incised valleys are critical stratigraphic features for unraveling long-term Earth-surface processes and depositional history, and commonly exhibit stratigraphic attributes that make them desirable fluid reservoirs. While there is much descriptive documentation on architecture of incised-valley fills and paleoenvironmental regimes, relatively little work has focused on quantitative modeling of the dynamics of incised-valley evolution. Here we use well-constrained observations of incised valleys in experiments and the field to explore controls on valley geometry and develop a simple valley model to quantify the primary dynamics of incised-valley evolution. We document a strong tendency for incised valleys to widen downstream independent of the details of the relative base-level curve or initial surface profile, due primarily to the effects of increased sediment flux. This is in general agreement with measurements of experimental and natural incised valleys, though the degree of widening is less in natural systems due to greater sidewall resistance and smaller water discharge (relative to valley size). A first-order model of incised-valley evolution highlights three important trends: valley aggradation and widening; valley incision and widening; and valley incision and narrowing. The model reproduces the primary geometric responses to valley formation as measured from experiments: valley width and depth both increase in response to increases in (1) local relative base-level fall and (2) the initial offshore water depth. Finally, we generalize the first-order controls on valley geometry via dimensional analysis to show that long-term valley narrowing is not readily produced from relative base-level fall alone.


ISSN: 1527-1404
EISSN: 1938-3681
Serial Title: Journal of Sedimentary Research
Serial Volume: 81
Serial Issue: 1
Title: Quantitative modeling of the evolution and geometry of incised valleys
Affiliation: University of Minnesota-Minneapolis, Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, Minneapolis, MN, United States
Pages: 64-79
Published: 201101
Text Language: English
Publisher: Society for Sedimentary Geology, Tulsa, OK, United States
References: 80
Accession Number: 2011-012717
Categories: Sedimentary petrology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 3 plates
N30°19'60" - N30°58'00", W96°40'00" - W96°04'60"
Secondary Affiliation: Louisiana State University, USA, United States
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States. Reference includes data supplied by SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, OK, United States
Update Code: 201108
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