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Calcite precipitation driven by the common ion effect during groundwater-surface-water mixing; a potentially common process in streams with geologic settings containing gypsum

Li Jin, Donald I. Siegel, Laura K. Lautz, Myron J. Mitchell, Dennis E. Dahms and Bernhard Mayer
Calcite precipitation driven by the common ion effect during groundwater-surface-water mixing; a potentially common process in streams with geologic settings containing gypsum
Geological Society of America Bulletin (July 2010) 122 (7-8): 1027-1038

Abstract

We report the results of a synoptic ("snapshot") sampling of inorganic and isotopic geochemistry of surface water and groundwater during base flow in Red Canyon Creek watershed (Wyoming, USA) to evaluate how mixing of waters and geochemical processes modify stream-water chemistry. Our synoptic approach of studying the geochemistry of a stream mimics and has the same strengths of that widely used to characterize geochemical processes in groundwater systems. Gypsum dissolution, carbonate precipitation, and the influx of tributary and groundwater all affect Red Canyon Creek stream-water chemistry. Identical ranges of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes show good hydraulic connection between surface water and shallow groundwater. In contrast, delta (super 34) S (sub SO4) values of groundwater (15.2 per mil + or -1.6 per mil) and surface water (11.1 per mil + or -1.6 per mil) reflect sulfate mostly contributed by gypsum dissolution. Calcium contributed by gypsum dissolution causes calcite to rapidly precipitate in crusts observed in the streambed. This process occurs even though residence time of water in the stream is orders of magnitude less than that found in groundwater systems showing the same kind of common ion effect. Although microbes oxidize organic matter by sulfate reduction behind beaver dams and in the hyporheic zone, too little of this water reaches the stream to measurably affect the sulfur isotopic signature of its water. The results of this study suggest that calcareous accumulations in the fluvial sedimentary record, in association with gypsum, may possibly be paleohydrologic proxies for environments where mixtures of surface water with different chemical composition occurred.


ISSN: 0016-7606
EISSN: 1943-2674
Coden: BUGMAF
Serial Title: Geological Society of America Bulletin
Serial Volume: 122
Serial Issue: 7-8
Title: Calcite precipitation driven by the common ion effect during groundwater-surface-water mixing; a potentially common process in streams with geologic settings containing gypsum
Affiliation: Syracuse University, Department of Earth Sciences, Syracuse, NY, United States
Pages: 1027-1038
Published: 201007
Text Language: English
Publisher: Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States
References: 62
Accession Number: 2010-050183
Categories: HydrogeologyHydrochemistry
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 3 tables, geol. sketch map
N42°34'00" - N42°40'60", W108°46'00" - W108°35'60"
Secondary Affiliation: State University of New York, USA, United StatesUniversity of Northern Iowa, USA, United StatesUniversity of Calgary, CAN, Canada
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2019, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States. Reference includes data supplied by the Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, United States
Update Code: 201027
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