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Principal component spectral analysis

Hao Guo, Kurt J. Marfurt and Jianlei Liu
Principal component spectral analysis
Geophysics (July 2009) 74 (4): P35-P43

Abstract

Spectral decomposition methods help illuminate lateral changes in porosity and thin-bed thickness. For broadband data, an interpreter might generate 80 or more somewhat redundant amplitude and phase spectral components spanning the usable seismic bandwidth at 1-Hz intervals. Large numbers of components can overload not only the interpreter but also the display hardware. We have used principal component analysis to reduce the multiplicity of spectral data and enhance the most energetic trends inside the data. Each principal component spectrum is mathematically orthogonal to other spectra, with the importance of each spectrum being proportional to the size of its corresponding eigenvalue. Principal components are ideally suited to identify geologic features that give rise to anomalous moderate- to high-amplitude spectra. Unlike the input spectral magnitude and phase components, the principal component spectra are not direct indicators of bed thickness. By combining the variability of multiple components, principal component spectra highlight stratigraphic features that can be interpreted using a seismic geomorphology workflow. By mapping the three largest principal components using the three primary colors of red, green, and blue, we could represent more than 80% of the spectral variance with a single image. We have applied and validated this workflow using a broadband data volume containing channels draining an unconformity, which was acquired over the Central Basin Platform, Texas, U.S.A. Principal component analysis reveals a channel system with only a few output data volumes. The same process provides the interpreter with flexibility to remove any unwanted high-amplitude geologic trends or random noise from the original spectral components by eliminating those principal components that do not aid in delineation of prospective features with their interpretation during the reconstruction process.


ISSN: 0016-8033
EISSN: 1942-2156
Coden: GPYSA7
Serial Title: Geophysics
Serial Volume: 74
Serial Issue: 4
Title: Principal component spectral analysis
Affiliation: University of Houston, Allied Geophysical Laboratories, Houston, TX, United States
Pages: P35-P43
Published: 200907
Text Language: English
Publisher: Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa, OK, United States
References: 14
Accession Number: 2009-077267
Categories: Applied geophysics
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus.
N25°45'00" - N36°30'00", W106°30'00" - W93°30'00"
Secondary Affiliation: University of Oklahoma, USA, United StatesChevron Energy Technology Company, USA, United States
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2018, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data supplied by Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa, OK, United States
Update Code: 200941
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