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High-pressure behavior of gypsum; a single-crystal X-ray study

Paola Comodi, Sabrina Nazzareni, Pier Francesco Zanazzi and Sergio Speziale
High-pressure behavior of gypsum; a single-crystal X-ray study
American Mineralogist (October 2008) 93 (10): 1530-1537

Abstract

High-pressure X-ray diffraction was carried out on a single crystal of gypsum compressed in a diamond anvil cell. The sample maintained its crystal structure up to 4.0+ or -0.1 GPa. The fit of pressure dependence of the unit-cell volume to the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation yielded K (sub T0) = 44(3) GPa and (theta K (sub T) /theta P) (sub 0) = 3.3(3), where K (sub T0) and (theta K (sub T) /theta P) (sub 0) are the isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative in ambient conditions. The axial compressibility values, fitting data collected up to 3.94 GPa, were beta (sub 0a) (super EoS) = 6.1(1) and beta (sub 0c) (super EoS) = 5.6(1) 10 (super -3) GPa (super -1) . The value of beta (sub 0b) (super EoS) was 6.2(8) 10 (super -3) GPa (super -1) fitting the data collected up to 2 GPa, due to non-linearity above this pressure; axial compressibility of gypsum is almost isotropic (beta (sub 0a) : beta (sub 0b) : beta (sub 0c) = 1:1:0.9). This behavior is partly unexpected for a layered mineral based on alternate layers of Ca- and S-polyhedral chains separated by interlayers occupied by water molecules. Above 4.0 GPa the compression curve of gypsum shows a discontinuity with a 2.5% contraction in volume. Structural refinements indicate that SO (sub 4) volume and average S-O bond distances remain almost unchanged from room pressure to 3.9 GPa [range 1.637(4)-1.66(9) Aa (super 3) ; 1.4733-1.48 Aa]. The SO (sub 4) tetrahedron undergoes distortion: the smaller distance decreases from 1.4731(9) to 1.45(2) Aa and the larger increases from 1.4735(9) to 1.51(2) Aa. In contrast, the calcium polyhedra show expected high-pressure behavior, becoming more regular and decreasing in volume from 25.84(8) Aa (super 3) at ambient P to 24.7(1) Aa (super 3) at 3.9 GPa. The largest variations were observed in the interlayer region where the water molecules are located. Along the b axis, the two structural layers have very different compressibilities: the polyhedral layer is almost incompressible in the pressure range studied, whereas water layer compressibility is 9.7(3) 10 (super -3) GPa (super -1) , about twice that of the other two lattice parameters. At ambient conditions, water molecules form weak hydrogen bonds with the O atoms of Ca and S polyhedra. With increasing pressure, the weakest hydrogen bond becomes the strongest one: from 0.001 to 4 GPa, the distance changes from 2.806(1) to 2.73(2) Aa for OW-H1...O2, and from 2.883(2) to 2.69(3) Aa for OW-H2...O2. Structure refinements show that water remains in the structure when P increases. The observed distortion of sulfate tetrahedra explains the splitting of the nu (sub 1) sulfate stretching mode, and the various measured compressibilities of the two hydrogen bonds and the coalescence of the Raman stretching mode observed at pressures over 5 GPa.


ISSN: 0003-004X
EISSN: 1945-3027
Coden: AMMIAY
Serial Title: American Mineralogist
Serial Volume: 93
Serial Issue: 10
Title: High-pressure behavior of gypsum; a single-crystal X-ray study
Affiliation: University of Perugia, Department of Earth Sciences, Perugia, Italy
Affiliation: University of Toronto, Department of Geology, Toronto, ON, Canada
Pages: 1530-1537
Published: 200810
Text Language: English
Publisher: Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, DC, United States
References: 37
Accession Number: 2009-001462
Categories: Geophysics of minerals and rocks
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 5 tables
Secondary Affiliation: CNRS-IPGP, FRA, FranceGeoForschungsZentrum, DEU, Federal Republic of Germany
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute. Abstract, copyright, Mineralogical Society of America. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States
Update Code: 200901
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