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Interaction between local magma ocean evolution and mantle dynamics on Mars

Chris C. Reese, Viatcheslav S. Solomatov and Christopher P. Orth
Interaction between local magma ocean evolution and mantle dynamics on Mars (in Plates, plumes, and planetary processes, Gillian R. Foulger (editor) and Donna M. Jurdy (editor))
Special Paper - Geological Society of America (2007) 430: 913-932


Large-scale features of the crustal structure on Mars, including the hemispherical dichotomy and Tharsis, were established very early in planetary history. Geodynamical models for the origin of the dichotomy and Tharsis, such as lithospheric recycling and plume from the core-mantle boundary, respectively, involved solid-state mantle flow and are difficult to reconcile with timing constraints. An alternative point of view is that the Martian crustal asymmetry and Tharsis can be associated with the upwelling and spreading of large, impact-induced melt regions, i.e., local magma oceans. While the local magma ocean-induced upwelling model satisfies timing constraints on dichotomy and Tharsis formation, it neglects any interaction with longer-timescale mantle dynamics and cannot explain recent volcanic activity at Tharsis. In this study, fully 3-D, spherical shell simulations are used to investigate coupling between local magma oceans and mantle dynamics with radiogenic heating and core heatflow. For low core heat flux, it is found that upwellings driven by local magma ocean buoyancy are transient features of planetary evolution that is dominated by sub-lithospheric instabilities. With increasing core heat flux, local magma ocean-induced upwellings strongly influence the pattern of thermal plumes from the core-mantle boundary, which can remain stable for -4.5 b.y. The predicted melt volumes, present-day melting rate, and crustal structure are compared to observational constraints.

ISSN: 0072-1077
EISSN: 2331-219X
Serial Title: Special Paper - Geological Society of America
Serial Volume: 430
Title: Interaction between local magma ocean evolution and mantle dynamics on Mars
Title: Plates, plumes, and planetary processes
Author(s): Reese, Chris C.Solomatov, Viatcheslav S.Orth, Christopher P.
Author(s): Foulger, Gillian R.editor
Author(s): Jurdy, Donna M.editor
Affiliation: Washington University at Saint Louis, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, St. Louis, MO, United States
Affiliation: Durham University, Department of Earth Sciences, Durham, United Kingdom
Pages: 913-932
Published: 2007
Text Language: English
Publisher: Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States
References: 120
Accession Number: 2008-045043
Categories: Extraterrestrial geology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Annotation: With discussion
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 3 tables
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute.
Update Code: 200813
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