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The origin of post-Paleozoic magmatism in eastern Paraguay

Piero Comin-Chiaramonti, Andrea Marzoli, Celso de Barros Gomes, Claudio Riccomini, Victor Fernandez Velazquez, Marta M. S. Mantovani, Paul Renne, Colombo Celso Gaeta Tassinari and Paulo Marcos Vasconcelos
The origin of post-Paleozoic magmatism in eastern Paraguay (in Plates, plumes, and planetary processes, Gillian R. Foulger (editor) and Donna M. Jurdy (editor))
Special Paper - Geological Society of America (2007) 430: 603-633


The ages of magmatic rocks are crucial for understanding of the geodynamic relationships among different magmatic events. Between the compressional Andean and the extensional Atlantic systems, Paraguay has been the site of six main taphrogenic events since the end of Paleozoic times. Other than the Parana flood tholeiites (133-134 Ma; Early Cretaceous, Hauterivian), new high-precision (super 40) Ar/ (super 39) Ar ages show that other alkaline magmatism of various types occurred, namely sodic magmatism at 241.5+ or -1.3 Ma (Middle Triassic, Anisian), 118.3+ or -1.6 Ma (late Early Cretaceous, Aptian), and 58.7+ or -2.4 Ma (Paleocene); and potassic magmatism at 138.9+ or -0.7 (Early Cretaceous, Venginian) and 126.4+ or -0.4 Ma (Early Cretaceous, Barremian). The main geochemical characteristics of the sodic alkaline rock types are systematic Nb-Ta positive anomalies and Sr-Nd isotopes trending to the bulk Earth or the depleted mantle components, contrasting with potassic rocks and tholeiitic basalts that show negative Nb-Ta anomalies and Sr-Nd isotopes trending to the enriched mantle components. The Pb isotope versus Sr-Nd systematics confirm the distinction between potassic rocks enriched in "high-radiogenic" Sr and low in "less radiogenic" Nd-Pb and sodic rocks ranging from depleted components to bulk Earth and transitional to the Parana flood tholeiites. The occurrence of alkaline, both sodic and potassic (and carbonatititic), and tholeiitic magmatism in the whole Parana-Angola-Etendeka system, and even in the Andean system, implies appropriate lithospheric sources to generate the various types of magmatic rocks. Therefore, any hypothesis of an asthenospheric plume origin is not compelling; rather, possibly such a plume provided a thermal perturbation and/or a decompressional environment, and possibly mantle sources were driven by Precambrian melts that contaminated and veined the lithosphere. A decompressional environment is inferred as a possible mechanism driven by differential rotation of different subplates in the South America and south Africa plates.

ISSN: 0072-1077
EISSN: 2331-219X
Serial Title: Special Paper - Geological Society of America
Serial Volume: 430
Title: The origin of post-Paleozoic magmatism in eastern Paraguay
Title: Plates, plumes, and planetary processes
Affiliation: Universita di Trieste, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Trieste, Italy
Affiliation: Durham University, Department of Earth Sciences, Durham, United Kingdom
Pages: 603-633
Published: 2007
Text Language: English
Publisher: Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States
References: 155
Accession Number: 2008-045030
Categories: Solid-earth geophysics
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Annotation: Includes appendices
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 2 tables, sketch map
S28°00'00" - S22°00'00", W59°00'00" - W55°00'00"
Secondary Affiliation: Padua University, ITA, ItalyUniversidade de Sao Paulo, BRA, BrazilUniversity of California Berkeley, USA, United StatesUniversity of Queensland, AUS, Australia
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute.
Update Code: 200813
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