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Liquefaction, ground oscillation, and soil deformation at the Wildlife Array, California

Thomas L. Holzer and T. Leslie Youd
Liquefaction, ground oscillation, and soil deformation at the Wildlife Array, California
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (June 2007) 97 (3): 961-976


Excess pore-water pressure and liquefaction at the Wildlife Liquefaction Array in 1987 were caused by deformation associated with both high-frequency strong ground motion and 5.5-second-period Love waves. The Love waves produced large ( approximately 1.5%) cyclic shear strains well after the stronger high-frequency ground motion abated. These cyclic strains generated approximately from 13 to 35% of the excess pore-water pressure in the liquefied layer and caused excess pore-water pressures ultimately to reach effective overburden stress. The deformation associated with the Love waves explains the "postearthquake" increase of pore-water pressure that was recorded at the array. This explanation suggests that conventional methods for predicting liquefaction based on peak ground acceleration are incomplete and may need to consider cyclic strains associated with long-period surface waves. A postearthquake survey of an inclinometer casing indicated permanent shear strain associated with lateral spreading primarily occurred in the upper part of the liquefied layer. Comparison of cone penetration test soundings conducted after the earthquake with pre-earthquake soundings suggests sleeve friction increased. Natural lateral variability of the liquefied layer obscured changes in tip resistance despite a approximately 1% reduction in volume. The large oscillatory motion associated with surface waves explains ground oscillation that has been reported at some liquefaction sites during earthquakes.

ISSN: 0037-1106
EISSN: 1943-3573
Serial Title: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America
Serial Volume: 97
Serial Issue: 3
Title: Liquefaction, ground oscillation, and soil deformation at the Wildlife Array, California
Affiliation: U. S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA, United States
Pages: 961-976
Published: 200706
Text Language: English
Publisher: Seismological Society of America, Berkeley, CA, United States
References: 41
Accession Number: 2007-084727
Categories: SeismologyEnvironmental geology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 2 tables, sketch maps
N32°45'00" - N33°15'00", W115°45'00" - W115°30'00"
Secondary Affiliation: Brigham Young University, USA, United States
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute. Abstract, Copyright, Seismological Society of America. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States
Update Code: 200739
Program Name: USGSOPNon-USGS publications with USGS authors
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