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Karst geomorphology, caves and cave deposits; a review of North American contributions during the past half century

Derek C. Ford
Karst geomorphology, caves and cave deposits; a review of North American contributions during the past half century (in Perspectives on karst geomorphology, hydrology, and geochemistry; a tribute volume to Derek C. Ford and William B. White, Russell S. Harmon (editor) and Carol M. Wicks (editor))
Special Paper - Geological Society of America (2006) 404: 1-13

Abstract

North American research on surface karst landforms has tended to focus on factors affecting the development and distribution of sinkholes. There have been important quantitative contributions to understanding the formation of solutional, suffosional, and collapse sinks, and a major series of applied geotechnical studies has been published. Gypsum karst, and the impacts of repeated glaciations and permafrost on carbonate, gypsum, and salt karst have received much attention in recent years. North American research dominated the general field of speleogenesis until the past two decades. There are well-understood models for dissolutional cave development in young, newly emerged limestones, for situations where cool or thermal waters ascend from deeper formations, and for descending, unconfined meteoric waters. Worldwide, there is now intensive computer modeling of conduit initiation and enlargement and their relation to the evolution of karst aquifers. There have been many important advances in the study of cave deposits. Clastic sediments may be dated approximately by paleomagnetics, more precisely by cosmogenic (super 10) Be/ (super 26) Al decay of quartz sands or pebbles, and by (super 39) Ar/ (super 40) Ar where clays have been converted to alunite by H (sub 2) S reactions. Currently, there is a bandwagon in paleoenvironmental studies of speleothems. They can be precisely dated back to 500,000 yr B.P. by U-series methods, their C and O isotope ratios track local and regional environmental changes over the course of the glacial cycles, and many display annual or other significant periodic banding.


ISSN: 0072-1077
EISSN: 2331-219X
Coden: GSAPAZ
Serial Title: Special Paper - Geological Society of America
Serial Volume: 404
Title: Karst geomorphology, caves and cave deposits; a review of North American contributions during the past half century
Title: Perspectives on karst geomorphology, hydrology, and geochemistry; a tribute volume to Derek C. Ford and William B. White
Author(s): Ford, Derek C.
Author(s): Harmon, Russell S.editor
Author(s): Wicks, Carol M.editor
Affiliation: McMaster University, School of Geography and Geology, Hamilton, ON, Canada
Affiliation: U. S. Army Research Office, Environmental Sciences Division, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States
Pages: 1-13
Published: 2006
Text Language: English
Publisher: Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States
ISBN: 978-0-8137-2404-1
ISBN: 0-8137-2404-7
References: 90
Accession Number: 2006-075401
Categories: GeomorphologyHydrogeology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. block diags., sects.
N31°30'00" - N37°00'00", W109°04'60" - W103°00'00"
N33°34'60" - N37°00'00", W103°00'00" - W94°25'00"
N28°30'00" - N33°30'00", W106°19'60" - W100°30'00"
Secondary Affiliation: University of Missouri-Columbia, USA, United States
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute.
Update Code: 200643
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